Violence Against Women in Morocco
Morocco
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Population of women: 16,642,000/32,599,000 
Life expectancy of women (at birth):
 75 
School life expectancy for women: 10
Women's adult literacy: 44%
Unemployment of women: 10.2% Women engaged in economic activity: 26%                        

Source
: U.N. Statistics Division, 
Social Indicators, updated December 2012[i]

 

last updated July 2014

 
Introduction

The Kingdom of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy and is currently ruled by His Majesty King Muhammed VI, who became king following the death of his father, the late King Hassan II, in July 1999.[ii] Although the king has committed the country to human rights reforms, some of the notable obstacles to preventing and prosecuting acts of violence include a family law system based on Islamic law that until recently provided more rights in marriage and divorce to men than to women, unwillingness of law enforcement to interfere in disputes considered family matters, a high illiteracy rate in the general population, and distrust of the legal system.[iii]

According to a report prepared for the 26th Session of the UN Human Rights Council (June 2014) by The Advocates for Human Rights and the Moroccan NGO Mobilising for Rights Associations:

Currently, no specific legislation addressing violence against women exists in Morocco . . . [Moroccan] laws have legal gaps, are insufficient to prevent, investigate, and punish violence against women, are discriminatory, and rarely enforced by the justice system in cases of gender-based violence, such as sexual harassment, rape, and domestic abuse. The law enforcement and justice systems do not respond adequately to complaints of violence against women; few VAW cases reach the courts due to the failures of the system to investigate crimes of violence, protect victims and hold perpetrators accountable.[iv]

Government Structure

The executive branch in Morocco consists of the King, a Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. The Parliament has two chambers, a House of Representatives and a House of Counselors. [v] Members of the House of Representatives are elected for six-year terms by universal suffrage, while the members of the House of Counselors are elected for nine-year terms by local and national electoral colleges, which include members of trade organizations and representatives of salaried workers.[vi]  The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court or Court of Cassation, which hears cases concerning civil, family, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal issues.[vii]  The king appoints Supreme Court judges according to recommendation from the Supreme Council of the Judiciary.[viii]  The judicial system also includes a court of appeals, regional courts, and sadad courts, which address religious, civil and administrative as well as penal cases.[ix] 

The U.S. Department of State’s 2013 Country Report on human rights practices in Morocco indicates that the king has acknowledged the judiciary’s lack of independence and susceptibility to influence but that many members of the “well-entrenched and conservative” judicial community resist adopting new procedures, including those beneficial to women’s rights.[x]

Gender Equality

Morocco ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993. In 1996, revisions to the Moroccan Constitution established political equality for women.[xi]  Article 5 now states that “[a]ll Moroccan citizens shall be equal before the law.”[xii] Article 13 guarantees all citizens equal rights in seeking education and employment.[xiii]  In 2011, Morocco again revised its Constitution.[xiv]  The 2011 revisions explicitly provided women with equal civil, political, economic, cultural and environmental rights. [xv] The 2011 reforms also provided for an Authority for Equality and the Fight against all Forms of Discrimination, but the Moroccan Parliament has yet to enact legislation implementing the Authority.[xvi] 

The US State Department’s 2013 Country Report on Morocco found that women actively participate in politics, but do not hold any high-ranking, decision-making positions.[xvii]  However, by October of 2013, the 39-member cabinet consisted of six women.[xviii]  The king of Morocco also has several female advisors.[xix]  Following the 2011 elections, the number of women in the House of Representatives increased from 34 to 67, a result of a new quota system initiated in 2002 that reserves 30 of the 325 of the House of Representatives seats on the national list to women and the 2011 constitutional amendments requiring that women comprise 15% (60 seats) of all members of Morocco’s parliament.[xx]

Morocco withdrew its reservations to articles 9(2) and 16 of the CEDAW Convention in December 10, 2008,[xxi] although Morocco did not formally register the withdrawal with the United Nations until April 18, 2011.[xxii] In 2007, the country enacted a Nationality Law that stated that Moroccan women can pass on citizenship to their children.[xxiii]

The Family Law Reforms of 2004

Family law in Morocco is based on Islamic Law, or shari‘a. [xxiv]  The family law, or Moudawana, was amended in February 2004.[xxv] The preamble now states:

Doing justice to women, protecting children’s rights and preserving men’s dignity are a fundamental part of this project, which adheres to Islam’s tolerant ends and objectives, notably justice, equality, solidarity, ijtihad (judicial reasoning) and receptiveness to the spirit of our modern era and the requirements of progress and development.[xxvi]

The first version of the current family law was codified in 1957 after Morocco gained independence from France. Attempts to reform the code began within a decade after its codification, and the first reforms were adopted in 1993.[xxvii] In 1999 a new government formed at the late King Hassan II’s invitation and presented a Plan of Action for the “improvement of women’s position in Moroccan society.”[xxviii] Women’s organizations applauded the 1999 plan, but faced opposition from conservatives in government.[xxix] As a show of strength, the women’s movement organized a march in Rabat in March 2000, the attendance at which is estimated to have been somewhere between 300,000 and one million.[xxx] Although the Plan of Action stalled, King Muhammed VI established a consultative commission for the reform of the family law in 2001, which resulted in the 2004 amendments. [xxxi]

Prior to the 2004 reforms, the family code required that a woman obey her husband, required a woman to use a male guardian (or wali) to conclude her marriage, and limited the circumstances under which a woman could seek a divorce.[xxxii] The new family code in Morocco grants mutual rights and duties to both the husband and the wife. This includes the joint protection and management of household affairs and the education of children.[xxxiii] The code no longer includes the broad mandate that a woman obey her husband. The right of a husband to use repudiation to dissolve a marriage (declaring divorce three times in front of male witnesses) is limited to judicial action.[xxxiv]  It requires that a man seeking to take more than one wife prove in court that he can treat both equally and allows the court to play a role in making sure the first wife has consented.[xxxv] Additionally, a woman can either place a clause in the marriage contract obliging her husband to refrain from taking other wives or obtain a divorce if she does not agree to her husband's subsequent marriage.[xxxvi] 

The Moudawana codifies the right to seek divorce based on “irreconcilable differences;” however, the right to do so is limited by instructions to the court to make all efforts to reconcile the spouses.[xxxvii] A wife is specifically given the right to petition for divorce on the following grounds: non-respect by the husband of one of the conditions in the marriage contract, harm, non-maintenance, absence, latent defect, or abstinence and abandonment.[xxxviii]  The new Moudwana also raises the minimum age of marriage for women from 15 years to 18 years of age.[xxxix]

However, many NGOs remain highly critical of the 2004 Family Code, with The Advocates and Mobilisation for Rights Associations stating in 2014:

The 2004 Family Code allows polygamy, maintains men’s power to unilaterally divorce their wives without cause, provides for unequal access to divorce between men and women, maintains discrimination in child custody and guardianship and inheritance, and does not adequately protect women’s economic rights during marriage or upon divorce. Unwed mothers are discriminated against and made vulnerable to abuse.[xl]

Additionally, judges remain inadequately trained about, or are unwilling to enforce, the reformed family law.[xli] For example, judges will ignore or waive the minimum legal age of marriage for women to allow underage girls, some as young as 13, to be married.[xlii] Enforcing the legal reforms and gaining access to the legal system more generally is especially difficult for women in rural areas, where judicial administrators are more likely to abide by traditional patriarchal norms and basic infrastructure and public services are lacking.[xliii] Additionally, Morocco has no anti-discrimination legislation that contains “an explicit definition of the principle of equality between women and men or of discrimination on the basis of sex.”[xliv]

In 2012, a United Nations human rights working group evaluated gender discrimination resulting from Morocco’s legal framework and recommended establishing an authority for parity, including for poor and rural women, and using educational campaigns or the media to reduce negative stereotypes about women.[xlv] The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in 2008 recognized such stereotypes as a significant concern, stating:

The Committee expresses concern that traditional discriminatory practices and strong stereotypical attitudes persist about the roles and responsibilities of women and men in family and society. These stereotypes present a significant impediment to the implementation of the Convention and are a root cause of the disadvantaged position of women in all areas, including in the labour market and in political and public life, negatively affecting women’s enjoyment of their rights and impeding the full implementation of the Convention.[xlvi]

The government has attempted to create a national action plan on gender equality, culminating in the “Government Plan for Equality (ICRAM): Towards the Achievement of Gender Parity” (2012-2016) and adopted by the Moroccan government council in June 2013.[xlvii] Implementation of the plan has not tracked government commitments.[xlviii]

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a significant problem in Morocco. The 2011 survey on violence against women conducted by the Moroccan government found that 55% of reported acts of violence experienced by women were perpetrated by husbands against wives, and that victims reported the violence in only 3% of cases.[xlix]

No provision of the Moroccan civil, penal, or family code specifically prohibits domestic violence against women or provides for protective orders or other measures of support for abused women. However, the 2011 amendments to the Moroccan Constitution prohibit “all violations of physical and moral integrity and dignity, as well as all cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment, under any circumstances, whether committed by State or private actors,”[l] which could in theory be applied to cases of domestic violence.

Limited references to family violence are contained in the penal code. For example, articles 404 and 414 of the Moroccan penal code call for enhanced prison sentences where the victim of an assault or battery (Articles 400-403) or poisoning (Article 413) is a family member or spouse.[li] Legislation proposed in 2013 that was characterized as a comprehensive bill on violence against women would only make minor changes to the penal code and code of criminal procedure, primarily by “making certain existing crimes applicable to spouses (such as theft, defamation, fraud), and increasing penalties for existing crimes when the victim is the offender’s spouse.”[lii] However, this bill, 103-13, was tabled and its fate was uncertain as of July 2014.[liii]

In any event, existing penal provisions are considered outdated or inadequate to effectively address domestic abuse due to social pressure to preserve family units, and the conservative attitude of many law enforcement and government officials.[liv] Additionally, article 418 of the penal code sanctions “honor” violence against a spouse under certain circumstances, stating, “murder, injury and beating are excusable if they are committed by one spouse on the person of the other [spouse] as well as the accomplice at the moment in which he surprises them in the act of adultery.[lv] At least 200 Moroccan women are killed in this way each year, according to unofficial estimates.[lvi]

The requirement that victims demonstrate the physical result of violence, rather than the act of violence itself, creates a high bar to prosecutions for spousal assault or abuse.[lvii] Moroccan police generally lack the authority to intervene in domestic violence cases unless there is an “imminent threat of death.”[lviii] Judges in particular are reluctant to jail perpetrators because they “dislike breaking up the family.”[lix] Perpetrators of domestic violence are usually treated leniently under Moroccan laws.[lx] Physical abuse is legally sufficient grounds for divorce, but abuse is rarely reported.[lxi]  Additionally, a court will require two witnesses to the violence before granting a divorce.[lxii]

In short, as outlined by The Advocates and Mobilising for Rights Associations in 2014:

Public authorities only intervene in cases of severe injuries or murder. Lengthy proceedings, lack of protection measures, attitudes blaming the victim, and high rates of cases closed without investigation or follow-up deter women from reporting and prosecuting violence.[lxiii]

Support Services

The Moroccan judicial system has created multi-sector violence against women “cells” that are intended to coordinate the work of lawyers, judges, NGOs, and health care professionals on domestic violence cases to ensure the interests of women and children are protected.[lxiv] Morocco’s government also operates toll-free hotlines for victims of domestic violence, but few shelters exist for domestic violence victims, and most are provided by NGOs and are not government funded.[lxv] Many shelters have restrictive requirements that preclude most women from staying at the shelter.[lxvi] However, the government did amend the penal code in August 2013 to eliminate articles 494-496 that made it a crime to hide, harbor or abduct a married women, which articles had made many women’s shelters illegal in Morocco.[lxvii]

Moroccan NGOs report that the violence against women “cells” are “ineffective and not functional, limited to a purely administrative bureaucratic role of completing paperwork rather than providing information, services or protection to women victims of violence.”[lxviii] Additionally, women who seek shelter and support after leaving violent partners are often criticized and blamed for their own situation, even by public social workers.[lxix]

Sexual Assault

The Moroccan government completed a survey in 2011 that revealed 63% of women had suffered an act of violence in the past year, with 8.7 % reporting sexual violence.[lxx]

Rape is punishable by prison terms of five to 10 years (10 to 20 years if the victim is a minor), and sexual assault is punishable by a prison sentence of up to one year and a fine of 15,000 dirhams ($1,810).[lxxi] The penal code also criminalizes sexual acts with a minor “without violence” in article 484.[lxxii]

In January 2014, Morocco’s parliament repealed a provision in Article 475 of the penal code that enabled any man accused of abducting or “deceiving” an underage girl to avoid prosecution if he married his victim, even if he raped her. [lxxiii]  The repeal came in the wake of increased international pressure that was sparked, in part, by the 2012 suicide of a 16-year-old girl after she was forced to marry her rapist.[lxxiv] However, the rest of Article 475 remains unchanged, with minimal penalties for perpetrators who “abduct or deceive” a young girl.[lxxv] Additionally, the government did not amend its laws to require additional protection or support for child victims of rape or abduction; thus, Moroccan NGOs report that many families “still view marriage to the rapist as a ‘solution’” to social stigma, and many families no longer report the rape of their daughters in the first place.[lxxvi]

It is not clear whether the Moroccan authorities consider spousal rape a crime prohibited by the general provisions on rape in the criminal code. According to The Advocates and Mobilising for Rights Associations, Moroccan officials have made conflicting statements on the subject, with the Minister of Justice most recently telling several Moroccan NGOs that spousal rape was not a crime because, “you can’t deprive a man of what is rightfully his.”[lxxvii]

In general, Morocco’s rape laws are not well enforced or prosecuted.[lxxviii] Victims must have visible, physical injuries to establish non-consent to rape, making such cases extremely hard to prove.[lxxix] In any event, women often do not report sexual assaults due to social stigma and fear of being prosecuted for “illicit sexual activity.”[lxxx]

Sexual Harassment 

Sexual harassment is prohibited by the Moroccan penal code when it is committed by a figure of authority or a superior.[lxxxi] Moroccan authorities rarely enforce this provision, and few victims choose to sue employers, fearing the loss of employment and the difficulties of providing evidence.[lxxxii]  According to local NGOs, widespread sexual harassment has resulted in low participation of women in the work force.[lxxxiii]

The Ministry of Social Development, Family and Solidarity has drafted a bill that would criminalize all forms of sexual harassment, with penalties of up to two years in prison.[lxxxiv]  Sexual harassment is defined in the bill as any action “or advances against a third party through acts, words or gestures of a sexual nature, or any attempts to reach a sexual act.”[lxxxv]  Sentences would be more severe if committed by a colleague or employer as well as by a spouse or family member.[lxxxvi] As of February 2014, parliament has not approved this bill.[lxxxvii]

Trafficking in Women

Morocco is a source of women (and men and children) trafficked to Italy, Spain, and other parts of Europe and the Middle East for forced labor and sexual exploitation.[lxxxviii] According to the U.S. Department of State’s 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report (“TIP Report”) on Morocco, two commonly trafficked groups are girls (as young as six) forced to serve as child maids and women forced into prostitution in the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Jordan, Libya, Syria, and Europe.[lxxxix] In 2014, the U.S. State Department kept Morocco on the Tier 2 Watch List, indicating the Moroccan government had failed to demonstrate increased efforts to combat trafficking in 2013.[xc]

Morocco amended its Penal Code in 2003 to criminalize sex tourism, sexual abuse, trafficking in persons and child pornography.[xci] But the 2014 TIP report notes that Morocco lacks a single comprehensive anti-trafficking law, which remains a “serious obstacle to successfully prosecuting human trafficking and contributed to confusion among officials in differentiating human smuggling and human trafficking crimes.”[xcii] The TIP report also states that the Moroccan government demonstrated minimal efforts to protect victims of trafficking or to prevent human trafficking.[xciii] 

According to the TIP Report, the number of girls trafficked as maids has decreased significantly since 2005 due to increased awareness of the issue, and the Moroccan government has made efforts to offer protective services to women and children victimized by trafficking.[xciv] Articles 497-499 of the Moroccan Penal Code prohibit forced prostitution and prostitution of a minor, punishable by up to 10 years’ imprisonment (or up to life imprisonment if aggravated circumstances are present).[xcv]  The government continued to provide and fund a variety of trafficking training events for law enforcement and judicial officials in 2012.[xcvi]

Morocco acceded to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, on April 25, 2011.[xcvii] Following the adoption of the protocol, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons made her first official visit to Morocco in June 2013.[xcviii]  The Special Rapporteur expressed concern about the degree to which migrants were vulnerable to trafficking, as well as the legal gaps that prevent identification of trafficking victims.[xcix]  She also highlighted the lack of protection and support services for trafficked women and girls.[c]

The Special Rapporteur recommended that Morocco “implement a range of measures aimed at creating effective policy and institutional frameworks for combating trafficking,” specifically creating a national action plan and a national agency to coordinate anti-trafficking activities of state bodies.[ci]  She also recommended increased cooperation with other countries and appointing a national rapporteur who would be responsible for monitoring trafficking, implementing legislation and policy and developing a victim identification system.[cii]



[i] United Nations Statistics Division, “Social Indicators,” http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/default.htm (accessed July 24, 2014)

[ii] BBC, “Morocco Profile,” http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14121438, (accessed July 24, 2014).

[iii] United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220579.pdf

[iv] The Advocates for Human Rights and Mobilising for Rights Associations, “Morocco’s Implementation of Accepted UPR Recommendations On Women’s Rights,” 26th Session of the Human Rights Council, Geneva, 10-27 June 2014, par. 6.

[v] U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook: Morocco,” https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html (accessed July 24, 2014).

[vi] Ibid. “Government: Executive Branch, Legislative Branch.”

[vii] Ibid. “Government: Judicial Branch.”

[viii] Ibid “Government: Judicial Branch.”

[ix] Ibid. “Government: Judicial Branch.”

[x] United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013: Morocco, 2013, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220579.pdf

[xi] Constitution of Morocco, 1996. English translation available at http://www.al-bab.com/maroc/gov/con96.htm

[xii] Ibid., Art. 5.

[xiii] Ibid., Art. 13.

[xiv] See Global Rights and The Advocates for Human Rights, “Morocco: Challenges with Addressing Domestic Violence in Compliance with the Convention against Torture,” 4 (2011).

[xv] Jefri J. Ruchti, trans., “Morocco: Draft text of the Constitution adopted at the Referendum of 1 July 2011 (HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated library 2011,” http://www.ancl-radc.org.za/sites/default/files/morocco_eng.pdf.

[xvi] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy and Human Rights, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013: Morocco, sec. 6, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220579.pdf.

[xvii] Ibid., sec. 3.

[xviii] Ibid.

[xix] Ibid.

[xx] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16; Krook, Moghadam, Dahlerup, El-Makari, Baydoun, El-Helou, Feghali, Goulding, Liddell, Kuku, “Gender Quotas and Parliamentary Representation” The Pioneer, no. 26/127 (2009), 82, http://inhouse.lau.edu.lb/iwsaw/raida126-127/EN/p001-105.pdf

[xxi] Sarah Touahri, “Morocco retracts CEDAW reservations,” Magharebia (December 17, 2008).

[xxii] Women's Learning Partnership, The Leadership Conference, “Women’s Rights and the Arab Spring: Overview on the Middle East and North Africa” (November 1, 2011).

[xxiii] Moroccan Nationality Law (2007), no. 62-06 by decree no. 1-07-80, (March 23, 2007).

[xxiv] The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana) of February 5, 2004.  Unofficial English translation by Human Rights Education Associates available at http://www.hrea.org/moudawana.html

[xxv] Leila Hanafi, “Moudawana and Women’s Rights in Morocco,” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 18, (2011), 518.

[xxvi] The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana) of February 5, 2004, Preamble.

[xxvii] Ziba Mir-Hosseini, “How the Door of Ijtihad was Opened and Closed: A Comparative Analysis of Recent Family Law Reforms in Iran and Morocco,” Washington and Lee Law Review 64, no. 1499 (2007): 1506.

[xxviii] Ibid., 1508.

[xxix] Dr. Iman Gazalla, “Sculpting the Rock of Women’s Rights: the Role of Women’s Organizations in Promoting the National Plan of Action to Integrate Women in Development in Morocco,” Center on Women and Public Policy Case Study Program, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, http://tulane.edu/newcomb/upload/sculpting_rock_women_rights.pdf. 

[xxx] Ibid.

[xxxi] Mir-Hosseini, “How the Door of Ijtihad was Opened and Closed,” supra n. 27, 1508.

[xxxii] Hanafi, “Moudawana and Women’s Rights in Morocco,” supra n. 25, 17-18.

[xxxiii] The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana) of February 5, 2004, Art. 51.

[xxxiv] Ibid., Arts. 78-93.

[xxxv] Ibid., Preamble, Arts. 40, 42 and 46.

[xxxvi] Ibid., Arts. 40-46.

[xxxvii] Ibid., Arts. 94-97.

[xxxviii] Ibid., Art. 98.

[xxxix] Ibid., Art. 19.

[xl] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 23.

[xli] Hursh, John, “Advancing Women's Rights Through Islamic Law: The Example of Morocco,” Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 27, no. 252 (2012): 268, http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/bglj/vol27/iss2/3/

[xlii] Leila Hanafi, Sarah Alaoui, “Beyond the law: Protecting Morocco's women,” Al-Jazeera, February 15, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/02/beyond-law-protecting-morocco--2014212104721165904.html

[xliii] Hanafi, “Moudawana and Women’s Rights in Morocco,” supra n. 25, 526-27.

[xliv] UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Morocco, CEDAW/C/MAR/CO/4, par. 10, April 8, 2008.

[xlv] United Nations News Centre, “UN Experts Call on Morocco to Implement Gender Equity Policies,” Feb. 21, 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f48fd5e2.html. 

[xlvi] CEDAW, Concluding Comments: Morocco, supra n. 44.

[xlvii] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4.

[xlviii] Ibid., par. 13.

[xlix] Human Rights Watch, “World Report 2012: Morocco and Western Sahara,” http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/morocco-and-western-sahara (accessed July 30, 2014).

[l] Constitution of Morocco, Art. 22, as cited in The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 22.

[li] Moroccan Penal Code, Arts. 400-404, 413-14 (in French).

[lii] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 15.   

[liii] Ibid., par. 14.

[liv] Ibid., par. 6.

[lv] Moroccan Penal Code, art. 418 (in French); Valerie Plant, “Honor Killings and the Asylum Gender Gap,” Journal of Transnational Law and Policy 15, no. 1 (2005): 117.

[lvii] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4.

[lviii] Ibid.

[lix] Ibid.

[lx] Ibid.

[lxi] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16.

[lxii] The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana) of February 5, 2004.

[lxiii] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 8.

[lxiv] US Department of State, Country Report Morocco 2013 http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220579.pdf  Section 6: “Sexual Harrassment”

[lxv] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16. 22.

[lxvi] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 10.

[lxvii] Ibid., par. 23.

[lxviii] Ibid., par. 10.

[lxix] Ibid.

[lxx] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16; UN Women, “Violence Against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country,” 13 (March 2011).

[lxxi] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16, 21-22.

[lxxii] “Morocco: Girls Death Highlights Flawed Laws,” Human Rights Watch, March 23, 2012 http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/23/morocco-girl-s-death-highlights-flawed-laws

[lxxiii] The repealed provision, Article 475 of Morocco’s criminal code, stated there are no grounds for prosecution against a person who abducted or seduced a minor girl who has reached puberty, if the girl marries the person who abducted or seduced her.

[lxxiv]Morocco repeals 'rape marriage law,'” Aljazeera (Jan. 23, 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/01/morocco-repeals-rape-marriage-law-2014123254643455.html

[lxxv] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 19.

[lxxvi] Ibid.

[lxxvii] Ibid., par. 9.

[lxxviii]  U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16, sec. 6.

[lxxix] The Advocates, UPR Implementation, supra n. 4, par. 7.

[lxxx] Ibid., par. 9.

[lxxxi] U.S. Department of State, Morocco 2013, supra n. 16, sec. 6.

[lxxxii] Ibid.

[lxxxiii] Ibid.

[lxxxiv] Moussaid, Assaya  B., “Sexual harassment in Morocco: perpetrators could get up to 4 years in jail,” Morocco World News, November 3, 2013, http://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2013/11/111056/sexual-harassment-in-morocco-perpetrators-could-get-up-to-4-years-in-jail/  (paragraph 3)

[lxxxv] Ibid. 

[lxxxvi] Ibid. 

[lxxxvii] Leila Hanafi, Sarah Alaoui, “Beyond the law: Protecting Morocco’s Women,” AlJazeera, February 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/02/beyond-law-protecting-morocco--2014212104721165904.html

[lxxxviii] Morocco is separated from Spain by the Strait of Gibraltar, and Spain is only eight miles away at the Strait’s narrowest point. Morocco is a transit point for trafficking in large part because of this geographic proximity to Europe.

[lxxxix] United States Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, “Country Narratives: Morocco,” 281-83 (2014).

[xc] Ibid., 281-82.

[xcii] Ibid., 281.

[xciii] Ibid., 282.

[xciv] Ibid., 281.

[xcv] ibid.

[xcvi] Ibid. 282.

[xcviii] Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights “UN rights expert urges Morocco to adopt a victim-centered approach to fight human trafficking” (June 25, 2013) http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=13485&LangID=E.

[xcix] Ibid.

[c] Ibid.

[ci] Ibid.

[cii] Ibid.