Research and Reports on Trafficking by Topic
last updated July 30, 2003
Source Countries for Trafficking

The following reports provide information about trafficking in women with regard to the source country, or the country of origin of the trafficking victim. These reports focus on source countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the former Soviet Union (FSU). In some cases, the countries in this region are source and destination countries or transit points for trafficked women, and so it is useful to review research on destination countries as well (see below).

Fertile Fields: Trafficking Persons in Central Asia, International Organization for Migration.  International Organization for Migration.  2005 (PDF, 120 pages).
This report for the IOM covers five Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.  In it, the patterns and scale of trafficking in the region are traced and counter-trafficking activities are documented.  The report also examines the boundaries between labor migration and trafficking and provides a series of recommendations on counter-trafficking research, legislation, and responses.

“So does it mean that we have rights?” Protecting the Human Rights of Women and Girls Trafficked for Forced Prostitution in Kosovo, Amnesty International, 2004. This report details the human rights abuses suffered by victims of trafficking in Kosovo. The report finds that the UN Interim Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the NATO-led international military force in Kosovo (KFOR), and the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government in Kosovo (PISG) have not done enough to protect the human rights of women and girls trafficked to, from and within Kosovo.

Europe, Central Asia, and North America Region: Quarterly Reports on Field Offices, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. (26 pages).
This report found that the State Commission, a law enforcement body charged with implementation of a National Action Plan Against Trafficking , and other law enforcement agencies were not given adequate support by the state government and that there were severe shortcomings in the provision of shelter to vulnerable victims.

Who Is the Next Victim? Vulnerability of Young Romanian Women to Trafficking in Human Beings.  International Organization for Migration, August 2003. (PDF, 75 pages)
Romania is one of the main countries of origin in South Eastern Europe for victims of trafficking.  Most of the young women are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.  This report examines factors that make women vulnerable to trafficking.  It looks not only at individual attributes, but also at environmental factors - the family and the community.

Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation: The Case of the Russian Federation.  International Organization for Migration, 2002. (PDF, 72 pages).
The Report examines factors that promoted the development of the trafficking in women from the Russian Federation.  It looks at the areas of Russia where women come from and the areas where they are trafficked. 

Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe: Current Situation and Responses, Barbara Limanowska, UNICEF, UNHCHR, OSCE-ODIHR, 2002. [PDF, 270 pages].
This comprehensive report provides an overview of the situation and response to trafficking in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova and Romania. It looks at regional initiatives as well as the responses of individual governments to the problem of trafficking.  The report includes details about inadequacies in victim services as well as recommendations for intergovernmental organizations, national governments, NGOs and donors on prevention, victim assistance, legal reform and training.

Shattered Dreams: Report on Trafficking in Persons in Azerbaijan, International Organization for Migration, 2002. [PDF, 72 pages].

Prevention of Trafficking in Women in the Baltic States, International Organization for Migration, 2002. [PDF, 25 pages].
This report presents IOM's regional information campaign against trafficking in women. The purpose of the campaign was to increase awareness about trafficking in women in the Baltic States and prevent future trafficking from the region. The project targeted the general public, focusing on potential victims, as well as the relevant authorities and NGOs in the Baltic States.

A Form of Slavery: Trafficking in Women in OSCE Member States, The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF), prepared for the OSCE Supplementary Human Dimension Meeting on Trafficking in Human Beings, Vienna, 19 June 2000.  [PDF, 86 pages].
This report is based on information gathered in the region through questionnaires and contains data on such issues as existing legislation, government policies and NGO initiatives, existing victim support services and research for 29 countries in the CEE and FSU.

Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in the former Soviet Union and Central and South-Eastern Europe, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 9 November, 2000.  [PDF].
This report contains information about a variety of women's rights issues, including trafficking, for 30 countries in the CEE and FSU region. Sections of this report are available online by country. To retrieve the section that addresses women's rights in a particular country, highlight the name of that country in the "Countries" pull-down menu, highlight "Women's Rights" in the "Topics" pull-down menu, and enter "2000" in the field for date of publication.

Human Rights Abuses Affecting Trafficked Women in Israel's Sex Industry, Amnesty International, 18 May 2000, AI Index: MDE 15/17/00.  [PDF, 18 pages].

Preliminary Survey Report on Sexual Trafficking in the CIS, MiraMed Institute, June 1999. [PDF, 18 pages].

Destination Countries for Trafficking
The following reports provide information about trafficking in women with regard to the destination country, or the country to which women are trafficked. These reports focus on the countries to which many women from the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) are trafficked. Trafficking routes, however, are extensive, and in many cases women are moved from country to county multiple times. In addition, destination countries receive trafficked women from many regions of the world. Thus, it is also useful to review research on source countries.

No Status: Migration, Trafficking & Exploitation of Women in Thailand, Physicians for Human Rights, June 2004 [PDF, 68 pages].

End Child Exploitation: Stop the Traffic, UNICEF UK, July 2003. [PDF, 40 pages].
UNICEF reports that over one million children worldwide are trafficked annually. This report focuses on the thousands of children trafficked to the UK every year, mainly from West Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia. The report examines how children are trafficked, the consequences of trafficking in children, regional trafficking patterns, and the international legal framework. The report also suggests seven key UNICEF interventions for combating trafficking.

Trafficking in Persons: The USAID Strategy for Response, U.S. Agency for International Development, February 2003. [PDF, 16 pages].

Put in Harm's Way: The Neglected Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking in the United States, H. Patricia Hynes and Janice G. Raymond, from Policing the National Body: Sex, Race, and Criminalization, 31 July 2002.
This report focuses on the negative health consequences faced by victims of trafficking; it also includes a general discussion of the dynamics of trafficking to the U.S.

Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe: Current Situation and Responses, Barbara Limanowska, UNICEF, UNHCHR, OSCE-ODIHR, 2002. [PDF, 270 pages].
This comprehensive report provides an overview of the situation and response to trafficking in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova and Romania. It looks at regional initiatives as well as the responses of individual governments to the problem of trafficking.  The report includes details about inadequacies in victim services as well as recommendations for intergovernmental organizations, national governments, NGOs and donors on prevention, victim assistance, legal reform and training.

Hopes Betrayed: Trafficking of Women and Girls to Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina for Forced Prostitution, Human Rights Watch, Volume 14 No. 9, November 2002.
This report details the phenomoenon of trafficking women and girls to Bosnia and Herzegovina. It provides accounts of victims' experiences, outlines the legal protections against trafficking, and discusses the Bosnian government response to the issue. It also provides recommendations to local, national, and international bodies for how to prevent and combat trafficking in the country.

Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Baltic States: Social and Legal Aspects, International Organization for Migration, 2001. [PDF, 352 pages].
This report compares the law and practice of the three Baltic States on the issue of trafficking and analyzes this body of law using international norms on trafficking.

Victims of Trafficking in the Balkans: a study of trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation to, through and from the Balkan Region, International Organization for Migration (IOM), January 2001.  [PDF, 51 pages].

A Form of Slavery: Trafficking in Women in OSCE Member States, The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF), prepared for the OSCE Supplementary Human Dimension Meeting on Trafficking in Human Beings, Vienna, 19 June 2000.  [PDF, 86 pages].
This report is based on information gathered in the region through questionnaires and contains data on such issues as existing legislation, government policies and NGO initiatives, existing victim support services and research for 29 countries in the CEE and CIS.

Stopping Traffic: Exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK, Liz Kelly and Linda Regan, Police Research Series Paper 125, 2000.  [PDF, 62 pages].

Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in the former Soviet Union and Central and South-Eastern Europe, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 9 November, 2000. [PDF].
This report contains information about a variety of women's rights issues, including trafficking, for 30 countries in the CEE and FSU region. Sections of this report are available online by country. To retrieve the section that addresses women's rights in a particular country, highlight the name of that country in the "Countries" pull-down menu, highlight "Women's Rights" in the "Topics" pull-down menu, and enter "2000" in the field for date of publication.

Migrant Sex Workers from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Canadian Case, Lynn McDonald, Brooke Moore and Natalya Timoshkina, Centre for Applied Social Research, University of Toronto, November 2000.  [PDF, 105 pages; HTML]. 
This report examines the working conditions of women trafficked into Canada's sex industry and also examines how the Canadian legal system addresses trafficking.  The research for this report was carried out, in part, through interviews with service providers and female migrant sex trade workers.  The report includes three interview guides, which could be adapted for research into the issue of trafficking in other contexts.

Trafficking in Women in Canada: A Critical Analysis of the Legal Framework Governing Immigrant Live-in Caregivers and Mail-Order Brides, Louise Langevin and Marie-Claire Belleau, Faculty of Law, Université Laval, Québec City, Quebec, October 2000.  [PDF, 233 pages; HTML].

Human Rights Abuses Affecting Trafficked Women in Israel's Sex Industry, Amnesty International, 18 May 2000, AI Index: MDE 15/17/00.  [PDF, 18 pages].

Victim Protection
“So does it mean that we have rights?” Protecting the Human Rights of Women and Girls Trafficked for Forced Prostitution in Kosovo, Amnesty International, 2004. This report details the human rights abuses suffered by victims of trafficking in Kosovo. The report finds that the UN Interim Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the NATO-led international military force in Kosovo (KFOR), and the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government in Kosovo (PISG) have not done enough to protect the human rights of women and girls trafficked to, from and within Kosovo.

Trafficking of Human Beings: Methods and Measures for Defending and Supporting the Victims, report presented by Giuseppe Roma, General Director, Centro Studi Investimenti Sociali (CENSIS), Rome, Italy, from the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Global challenge for the 21st century, Brussels, 18-20 September 2002.  [PDF, 25 pages].
This report includes information on measures to counter the various methods of recruitment and measures for social reintegration of victims.

Law Enforcement Co-operation with Non-Governmental Organizations, with reference to the Protection of Victims and Victims as Witnesses, Paul Holmes, International Law Enforcement Coordination Consultant, from the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Global challenge for the 21st century, Brussels, 18-20 September 2002.  [PDF, 29 pages].
This report includes discusses the rationale and legislative basis for cooperation between law enforcement bodies and NGOs, as well as some of the risks attached to such cooperation.  The report also includes recommendations on dealing with trafficking victims and victims who serve as witnesses.  Some of the recommendations are directed toward improved cooperation between agencies, but others address victim protection.

Human Traffic, Human Rights: Redefining Victim Protection, Anti-Slavery International, 2002.  [PDF, 231 pages]. 
Executive summary also available in Russian: ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ??????, ????? ????????: ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????, [PDF, 11 pages].

A Human Rights Approach to the Rehabilitation and Reintegration into Society of Trafficked Victims, remarks by Widney Brown, Human Rights Watch, from "21st Century Slavery - The Human Rights Dimension to Trafficking in Human Beings," Conference in Rome, Italy, 2002.

The Need for Effective Witness Protection in the Prosecution of Traffickers: a Human Rights Framework for Witness Protection, presentation by Elaine Peterson, Trafficking Program Officer, Anti-Slavery International, February 2001.  [PDF, 15 pages].

Women as Victims and Survivors in the Context of Transnational Crime, Edna Erez, Justice Studies Department, Kent State University, presented at the 10th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and The Treatment of Offenders in Vienna, Austria, 10-17 April 2000.

Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons, Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, the Foundation Against Trafficking in Women and the International Human Rights Law Group, January 1999.  [PDF, 17 pages]

The IOM Handbook on Direct Assistance for Victims of Trafficking," International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2007. [PDF, 356 pages]. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) issued this report in 2007.  IOM has 13 years of experience in counter-trafficking activities in all regions of the world, and the Handbook is a product of this experience. It provides guidelines and suggestions for NGOs in the same field.

Health Issues
The Health Risks and Consequences of Trafficking in Women and Adolescents: Findings from a European Study, London School of Hygiene, Tropical Medicine, La Strada Ukraine, Foundation Against Trafficking in Women (STV, Netherlands), the Department of Sociology at the University of Padua, the Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women (Thailand), the International Catholic Migration Committee (Albania) and the Child and Women Abuse Studies Unit of London Metropolitan University, 2003.  (PDF, 130 pages)
This report is the result of a two-year multi-country study on the health consequences of trafficking in women and girls. It provides a human rights analysis of health and trafficking and sets out principles for promoting the health rights of trafficked women.

First World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, 2002.  [PDF, 372 pages; 54-page summary in PDF, press releases and fact sheets available].  Also available in Russian: ??????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ????????. ?????? ? ???????? ? ????, 2003.
The Summary of the Report includes a discussion of sexual violence (pages 17-18), which identifies both "forced prostitution and sexual trafficking."  Chapter 6 of the full report provides much more detail about Sexual Violence, (pages 149- 181), including the definition, risk factors, consequences and strategies to address victims' needs, perpetrators and community education.  Pages 153- 155 discuss sexual trafficking and violence against commercial sex workers.  The Report concludes with general recommendations for responses to violence at local, national and international levels.

Sex Trafficking and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, Testimony of Holly Burkhalter, Physicians for Human Rights, House International Relations Committee, June 25, 2003.
These remarks discuss the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV/AIDS and the role the HIV/AIDS pandemic plays in contributing to trafficking. Physicians for Human Rights argues that ending trafficking is a means of HIV/AIDS prevention and encourages the U.S. Government to incorporate anti-trafficking activities into its HIV/AIDS programs and activities. It also recommends using the leverage of the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act to encourage other countries to take action against traffickers.

Put in Harm's Way: The Neglected Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking in the United States, H. Patricia Hynes and Janice G. Raymond, from Policing the National Body: Sex, Race, and Criminalization, 31 July 2002.
This report focuses on the negative health consequences faced by victims of trafficking; it also includes a general discussion of the dynamics of trafficking to the U.S.

A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, March 2002. [PDF, 245 pages]
This study describes the patterns, profiles and health consequences of sexual exploitation in five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela, and the United States.

Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in the Americas, prepared by Alison Phinney for the Inter-American Commision of Women (Organization of American States) and the Women, Health and Development Program (Pan American Health Organization).  [PDF, 11 pages].
This short report focuses on the issue of trafficking in the Americas but provides a useful and brief synopsis of the most common health risks faced by trafficking victims, including physical violence, exposure to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, substance abuse and mental health issues.

Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in The Americas, Fact Sheet, Inter-American Commission of Women (Organization of American States) and Women, Health and Development Program (Pan American Health Organization), July 2001.  [PDF, 2 pages].
This fact sheet focuses on the issue of trafficking in the Americas but provides a useful and brief synopsis of the most common health risks faced by trafficking victims, which has a global significance.

Strategies and Tools
The Human Trafficking Assessment Tool, The American Bar Association's Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative (ABA-CEELI) (2006).
This resource was designed to measure countries' compliance with the United Nation's Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.  The tool assess a country's de jure and de facto compliance with the UN Trafficking Protocol.  The Assessment tool considers laws and governmental efforts to eliminate traficking and compares them to the country's obligations under the UN Trafficking Protocol. The Assessment also looks at best practices and regional approaches to trafficking. In piloting the program, ABA-CEELI has used the assessment tool to look at the situation in Moldova.

Polaris Project, a grassroots organization, which combines direct intervention, survivor support and policy advocacy  to combat human trafficking and modern day slavery. In addition to being home to the largest online database on trafficking, the site also provides a feature called Anti-Trafficking Toolkit. Within this feature are training materials and information specifically aimed at assisting those involved in the struggle against human trafficking such as law enforcement officials, service providers, attorneys, academics and community members. Another key feature of the site is its large collection of survivor testimonies.

WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women, World Health Organization, Health Policy Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Daphne Programme of the European Commission, 2003 (PDF, 36 pages).
This report lists the ten guiding principles to conducting interviews with trafficked women in a safe and ethical manner. The report describes and provides recommendations for each principle.

Law Enforcement Co-operation with Non-Governmental Organizations, with reference to the Protection of Victims and Victims as Witnesses, Paul Holmes, International Law Enforcement Coordination Consultant, from the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Global challenge for the 21st century, Brussels, 18-20 September 2002.  [PDF, 29 pages].
This report discusses the rationale and legislative basis for cooperation between law enforcement bodies and NGOs, as well as some of the risks attached to such cooperation.  The report also includes recommendations on dealing with trafficking victims and victims who serve as witnesses.  Some of the recommendations are directed toward improved cooperation between agencies and others address victim protection.

Trafficking in Human Beings in [European Union] Candidate Countries, Dr. Lenke Fehér, Senior Scientific Researcher, National Institute Of Criminology, Budapest, from the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Global challenge for the 21st century, Brussels, 18-20 September 2002.  [PDF, 38 pages].
This report outlines the European efforts to combat trafficking and emphasizes the need for candidate countries to develop comprehensive legislation that addresses the various facets of the problem of trafficking, including victims' needs.  The report also presents concrete recommendations for developing an effective counter-trafficking policy, for government institutions and for NGOs.

A Resource Book for working against Trafficking in Women and Girls: Baltic Sea Region, Kvinnoforum, Stockholm, Sweden, Third edition, February 2002.  [PDF, 87 pages].
This report documents the experiences of six NGOs working in coalition against trafficking and provides references and on-line materials.

Statistical Abstract and Summary Report of Russia's First Multi-Regional, Multi-Media Public Education Anti-Trafficking Campaign, prepared by Juliette M. Engel, MD for the Angel Coalition and MiraMed Institute, November 2002.  [PDF, 26 pages].                                                                                                                         This report contains detailed information about an anti-trafficking public education campaign conducted in six sites in Russia in May-August 2001, which includes posters, buttons, brochures and press conferences.  The report could be useful to advocates planning similar campaigns in other countries. 

Crossing Borders Against Trafficking in Women and Girls: A Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in the Baltic Sea Region, Kvinnoforum, Stockholm, Sweden, Second edition, November 1999. 
This report sets out approaches for combating trafficking and provides information from the perspective of trafficking survivors.  The report also contains handouts, such as "Things to Think about for Women and Girls Who Decide to Work Abroad," and other reference materials.

Trafficking in Women for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation: Mapping the Situation and Existing Organizations Working in Belarus, Russia, the Baltic and Nordic States, Foundation of Women's Forum/Stiftelsen Kvinnoforum, Stockholm, August 1998.
This report documents the problem of trafficking in women but also includes a survey of NGO activities on this issue as well as strategies for future actions.

Legal Approaches

A Comparative Analysis of the Anti-Trafficking Legislation in Foreign Countries: Towards a Comprehensive and Effective Legal Response to Combating Trafficking in Persons,  Mohamed Y. Mattar, Protection Project at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, before the House Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights, 25 June, 2003.

Reference Guide for Anti-Trafficking Legislative Review, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), September 2001.  [PDF, 114 pages].
Also available in Russian: ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, [PDF, 151 pages] and in Serbian: Prirucnik za Reviziju Zakonske Regulative protiv Trgovine Ljudima, [PDF, 138 pages].
This guide takes a comprehensive view of the types of legislation necessary for an effective anti-trafficking policy.  The guide addresses prevention, prosecution and protection and assistance for victims, providing international standards, examples of national legislation and recommendations for legal initiatives that fall within each broad topic.

The Trafficking and Smuggling of Refugees: the End Game in European Asylum Policy?, UNHCR Working Paper, John Morrison and Beth Crosland, UNHCR Policy Research Unit, April 2001 (No. 29). [PDF, 101 pages].

The Swedish Approach to Prostitution, Sari Kouvo, Department of Law, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
This article discusses Sweden's 1999 law, which forbids the buying and attempted buying of sexual services, as a unique legal approach to the problems of prostitution and trafficking.

Trafficking as Gender-Based Violence

The Swedish Approach to Prostitution, Sari Kouvo, Department of Law, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
This article discusses Sweden's 1999 law, which forbids the buying and attempted buying of sexual services, as a unique legal approach to the problems of prostitution and trafficking.

Globalized, Wired, Sex Trafficking in Women and Children, Vanessa von Struensee, E Law - Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Vol 7, No 2, June 2000.

Redefining Prostitution as Sex Work on the International Agenda, Anti Slavery International and Network of Sexwork Projects, 1997.
This report examines the treatment of commercial sex work within the international human rights framework and explores the definitions of 'trafficking', 'prostitution' and 'slavery.'  The report also provide an overview of UN and ILO standards that relate to the commercial sex industry.