Bibliography
last updated May 2010
 
In partnership with UN Women, The Advocates for Human Rights created the following sections for UN Women's Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. This section, along with sections addressing other forms of violence against women and girls, may be found under Legislation at www.endvawnow.org.
 
African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (the Banjul Charter), Organization of African Unity, adopted June 27, 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force Oct. 21, 1986. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm
 
 
Anika Rahman & Nahid Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide, (Zed Books, 2000).
 
Asylum Law and Female Genital Mutilation: Recent Developments, Yule Kim, CRS Report for Congress, 15 February 2008.
 
 
 
 
Cairo Declaration for the Elimination of FGM, 23 June 2003, Afro-Arab Expert Consultation on “Legal Tools for the Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation”. http://www.childinfo.org/files/fgmc_Cairodeclaration.pdf
 
 
 
 
 
Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An Interagency Statement, by OCHCR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, published by WHO, 2008. http://www.unifem.org/attachments/products/fgm_statement_2008_eng.pdf
 
Ending Female Genital Mutilation:  A Strategy for the European Union Institutions, END FGM – European Campaign
 
 
 
http://www.euronet-fgm.org/
 
 
 
 
 
 
http://www.uv.es/CEFD/17/Johnsdotter.pdf
 
France, Laws of France, 2009.
 
 
 
Ghana, Constitution.
 
 
Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing genital mutilation, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, MWIA, WCPT, WMA, published by WHO 2010.
 
Handbook for Legislation on Violence Against Women, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Division for the Advancement of Women, 2009. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/handbook/Handbook%20for%20legislation%20on%20violence%20against%20women%20(advance).pdf
 
Hankkeen liitetiedot, Ventaan Nicehearts ry, Naisresurssikeskus Pihlaja.
 
 
 
 
 
Kenya, Children Act of 2001, 2001.
 
 
Netherlands,The Interim Supplement to the Aliens Act Implementation Guidelines (TBV 2003/48), as described in Fourth Dutch Implementation Report on the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW – UN Women’s Convention) 2000-2004
 
 
 
 
 
Protecting Girls from Female Genital Mutilation and Harmful Practices:  Challenges and Opportunites for Legal Intervention in Africa, Report of a Regional Workshop, Nairobi, 24-28 July 2006.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
StopVAW, http://www.stopvaw.org/, retrieved 2009. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-p.htm
 
 
 
“Towards a Consensus on Female Genital Mutilation in the European Union,” Final Report of the DAPHNE Project No. 97/2/096, 1997.
 
 
United Nations, Division for Advancement of Women, Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Human Rights, A/Conf.177/20, 15 September 1995. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/
 
Untied Nations, Commission on the Status of Women, Ending Female Genital Mutilation, E/CN.6.2010/L.8 (54th Session, 1-12 March 2010).
 
 
United Nations, Convention on the Rights of a Child, General Assembly resolution 44/25, 20 November 1989. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm
 
 
 
 
 
United Nations, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 14, (9th Session, 1990).http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/recommendations/recomm.htm
 
United Nations, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 19, (9th Session, 1990).http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/recommendations/recomm.htm
 
United Nations, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 24, (20th Session, 1999).http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/recommendations/recomm.htm
 
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Concluding Observations: Ethiopia, 24 January 1997, CRC/C/15/Add.67.  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6af5b44.html
 
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Concluding Observations: Sudan, 18 October 1993, CRC/C/15/Add.10.  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6af038.html
 
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Concluding Observations: Togo, 21 October 1997, CRC/C/15/Add.83.  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6af5d0.html
 
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for the Advancement of Women, Handbook for Legislation on Violence Against Women, 2009. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/v-handbook.htm.
 
United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Expert Group Meeting on Good practices in legislation to address harmful practices against women, Background Paper for Expert Group Meeting on good practices in legislation to address harmful practices against women, EGM/GPLVAW/2009/BP 10 June 2009.http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009/Background%20paper%20EGM%20(10.06.09)%20FINAL.pdf
 
United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Expert Group Meeting on Good practices in legislation to address harmful practices against women, Expert Paper - Harmful Traditional Practices in Europe: Judicial Interventions, Carole Ageng’o, May 2009.  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009/Expert%20Paper%20EGMGPLHP%20_Carole%20Ageng'o%20revised_.pdf
 
United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Expert Group Meeting on Good practices in legislation to address harmful practices against women, Expert Paper - Overview of Legislation in the European Union to Address Female Gential Mutilation: Challenges and Recommendations for the Implementation of Laws, Leye, Els; Sabbe, Alexia, May 2009.http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009/Expert%20Paper%20EGMGPLHP%20_Els%20Leye_.pdf
 
United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, The UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women, retrieved 2009.http://sgdatabase.unwomen.org/home.action
 
United Nations Economic and Social Council, UNICEF Child Protection Strategy, E/ICEF/2008/5/Rev.1, 2008.http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/CP_Strategy_English.pdf
 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Female Genital Mutilation, May 2009.
 
United Nations Human Rights Committee (HRC), Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: the Sudan, 29 August 2007, CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3.  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46e516f52.html
 
 
 
United Nations Secretary-General’s Database on Violence against Women, First Case Regarding Female Genital Mutilation, 2009.http://sgdatabase.unwomen.org/searchDetail.action?measureId=30477
 
 
 
 
United Nations, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A [XX1], 16 December 1966.http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/UN-covenant/
 
United Nations, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), Jan. 3, 1976. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cescr.htm
 
United Nations, Inter-Parliamentary Union, the world organisation of Parliaments, and UNICEF, Child protection:  A handbook for parliamentarians, 2004.http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Guide_Enfants_OK.pdf
 
United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71, 1948. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/