last updated May 2010

In partnership with UN Women, The Advocates for Human Rights created the following sections for UN Women’s Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. This section, along with sections addressing other forms of violence against women and girls, may be found under Legislation at

Bibliography for Drafting Legislation on Sexual Assault

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Protocol to the African Charter on Peoples’ Rights on the rights of Women in Africa (the Maputo Protocol), 2003.

Amnesty USA, Maze of Injustice: The Failure to Protect Indigenous Women from Sexual Violence in the USA, 2007.

Anderson, Janet, Research and Advocacy Digest, “Intimate Partner Sexual Violence,” 2007.

Antigua and Barbuda, Sexual Offences Act No. 9 (1995), 1995.

ASEAN, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the ASEAN Region, 2004.

AusAID (Australia), Violence Against Women in Melanesia and East Timor: A Review of International Lessons, 2007.

Australia (New South Wales), Crimes Act 1900.

Australia (Northern Territory), Criminal Code Act, 2009.

Australia (Victoria), Crimes Act 1958, 2010.

Australia (Western Australia), Criminal Code Act Compilation Act 1913.

Austria, Amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code, 2006.

Barbados, Sexual Offences Act, 1992.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2003.

CADA, last acc. 2/15/10.

Canada, Criminal Code, (R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46)

Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Respect, Protect and Fulfill: Legislating for Women’s Rights in the Context of HIV/AIDS (2009).

Cleveland Police, United Kingdom, Cleveland’s Success in Rape Convictions, 10/06/2009.

Coalition for the Campaign “Africa for Women’s Rights: Ratify and Respect!” and Fédération Internationale des ligues des Droits de l’Homme (FIDH), Africa for Women’s Rights: Ratify and Respect! Dossier of Claims (2010).

Conference of American States, American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, 1948.

Costa Rica, Criminalization of Violence against Women Law (2007).

Council of Europe General Recommendation (2002)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on the protection of women against violence adopted on 30 April 2002 and Explanatory Memorandum.

Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1691 (2009).

Crime and Justice Research Centre, Responding to Sexual Violence: Attrition in the New Zealand Criminal Justice System
Ministry of Women’s Affairs
, 2009.

Cybulska, Beata, “Sexual Assault: Key Issues,” 2007. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (UK).

De Cicco, Gabriela, “Mexico-Ciudad Juarez - Disappearances & Murders of Mexican Women Finally Steps Towards Justice - Inter-American Human Rights Court Judgment,” AWID, 12 December 2009


Du Mont, Janice, and White, Deborah, The Uses and Impacts of Medico-Legal Evidence in Sexual Assault Cases: A Global Review, Sexual Violence Research Institute (2007). (PDF, 87 pages).

Ellingwood, Ken, “Court cites rights failure by Mexico in Juarez killings of womenThe Los Angeles Times; (11 December 2009),0,7865590.story

Ellison, Louise, and Munro, Vanessa E., Turning Mirrors Into Windows? Assessing the Impact of (Mock) Juror Education in Rape Trials, 49 Brit. J. Criminology (2009).

European Policy Action Centre on Violence against Women, "Council of Europe Takes a Strong Position on Rape, Including Marital Rape," (22 January 2010).

Goldfarb, Sally F., United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Good Practices in Legislation on Violence against Women, The Legal Response to Violence against Women in the United States of America: Recent Reforms and Continuing Challenges, 2008.

Guanzon, Rowena V., United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Good Practices in Legislation on Violence against Women, Laws on Violence against Women in the Philippines, 2008.

Guatemala, Law against Femicide and Other Forms of Violence against Women, 2008.

Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Now, The World is Without Me”: An Investigation of Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (2010).

Horváth, Enikö, Zukani, Monwabisi, Eppel, Desmond, Kays, Monica, Konare, Abdoul, Park, Yeora S., Pischalnikova, Ekaterina Y., Stankard, Nathaniel, and Zingher, Tally, in collaboration with Barad, Elizabeth and Slattery, Elisa, Gender-Based Violence Laws in Sub-Saharan Africa (2007), prepared for the Committee on African Affairs of the New York City Bar as part of a pro bono project coordinated by The Cyrus R. Vance Centre for International Justice.

Human Rights Watch, Testing Justice: The Rape Kit Backlog in Los Angeles City and County (2009).

Inter-American Court of Justice, Caso González y Otras (“Campo Algodonero”) v. Mexico (2009).

International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy (Canada), Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice: Resource Manual, (1999).

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Prosecutor v. Akayesu (1998).

International Organization for Migration, "IOM Provides Technical Assistance to Reparations Programme for Victims of Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone" (23 March 2010).

Ireland, Criminal Law (Rape) (Amendment) Act, (1990).

Italy, Law No. 38/2009 on Urgent Measures Regarding Sexual Violence, 2009.

Johnson, Funmi, United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Good Practices in Legislation on Violence against Women, The Struggle for Justice: The State’s Response to Violence Against Women, 2008.

Kazakhstan, The Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1997.

Kentucky Association of Sexual Assault Programs, Developing a Sexual Assault Response Team, 2002.

Kenya, National Guidelines Medical Management of Rape/Sexual Violence, 2004.

Kenya, Sexual Offences Act (No.3) (2006).

Lesotho, Sexual Offences Act, 2003.

Liberia, Act to Amend the Penal Code (2005) of Liberia, 2005.,,,LEGISLATION,LBR,456d621e2,44868e674,0.html

Littel, Kristen, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs: Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims (2001).

Malkin, Elizabeth, “Mexico: Rebuke on Investigation of MurdersThe New York Times (10 December 2009).

Mexico, Law on Access of Women to a Life Free of Violence, (2007).

Montenegro, Law on Criminal Procedure, 2004.

Moser, Annalise, Women Building Peace and Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict-Affected Contexts: A Review of Community-Based Approaches (2007), UNIFEM.

Namibia, Combating of Rape Act, No. 8, 2000.

National Advisory Council on Violence Against Women (2001) United States, The Toolkit to End Violence Against Women.

National Prosecuting Authority of South Africa, Uniform Protocol for the Management of Victims, Survivors and Witnesses of Domestic Violence and Sexual Offences, 2004.

Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Best Practice Manual for the Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual Violence Crimes in Situations of Armed Conflict: Lessons from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (2008).

Organization of American States, Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women, 1994.

Papua New Guinea, Criminal Code (1974) of Papua New Guinea, 1974.

Persephone, Violence against Women with a Disability, (2002, updated 2008).

Philippines, Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act, 1998.

Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, last acc. 2/15/10.

safehorizon, last acc. 2/15/10.

San Marino, Prevention and Elimination of Violence against Women and Gender Violence, 2008.

South Africa, Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act (No. 32), 2007.

Spain, Organic Act on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence (2004) of Spain, 2004.

Stefiszyn, Karen, United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Good Practices in Legislation on Violence against Women, A Brief Overview of Recent Developments in Sexual Offences Legislation in Southern Africa, 2008.

Tanzania, Sexual Offences Special Provision Act, 1998.

The Advocates for Human Rights, StopVAW,, retrieved 2010.

Turkey, Law on Sexual Offences against Children, 2006.

Turkey, Criminal Code (2004). \NewtermservcompanyMAHR ProgramsWomensUNIFEM Knowlege Asset 2009Country LawsTurkeyCriminal Code.htm

United Kingdom, Criminal Injuries Compensation Act, 1995.

United Kingdom, Sentencing Guidelines on Sexual Offences, 2003.

United Kingdom, Sexual Offences Act (2003).

United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC Resolution 2005/20 Guidelines on Justice in Matters Involving Child Victims and Witnesses of Crime, 2005.

United Nations, Annex to General Assembly Resolution 52/86, 1997.

United Nations, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).

United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979.

United Nations, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, 1993.

United Nations, General Assembly resolution 62/149 (2008).

United Nations, General Assembly resolution 63/168 (2008).

United Nations, General Recommendation 19, 1992.

United Nations, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966.

United Nations, International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, 1976.

United Nations, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002).

United Nations, Secretary-General’s In-Depth Study on All Forms of Violence against Women, 2006.

United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000).

United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1820 (2008).

United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1888 (2009).

United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1889 (2009).

United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Report of the Intergovernmental Expert Group Meeting to Review and Update the Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, March 2009.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and Division for the Advancement of Women, Handbook for legislation on violence against women, 2009.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, The UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women, retrieved 2009.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Good practices in legislation on “harmful practices” against women, (2010).

United Nations News Centre, “UN peacekeepers involved in abuse are being punished, world body says.” (5 November 2009.)

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations Criminal Justice Standards for United Nations Police (2009).

United States Attorney Criminal Resource Manual, Ch. 9.22.000.

United States (Minnesota) Minnesota Statute §595.02 (2009).

United States (Minnesota), Minnesota Statute §611A, 2009.

United States (Minnesota), Minnesota Statute § 611A.0315, 2009.

United States (Minnesota), Criminal Procedure Code, § 629.715, 2009.

United States (New Jersey), New Jersey Code of Criminal Justice, 2010.

United States (Pennsylvania), Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, Crimes and Offences, 2010.

United States (Pennsylvania) Pennsylvania House Bill No. 2255, 2010 Session.

United States, Federal Rules of Evidence, 2008.

United States, Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005.

Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs, Intimate Partner Sexual Violence, Research & Advocacy Digest, Vol. 9, No. 2 (January 2007). (PDF, 16 pages)

Women’s Justice Centre, Form for Evaluating Police Response to Rape and Sexual Assault, 2009.

World Health Organization, Guidelines for Medico-Legal Care of Victims of Sexual Violence, 2003.

World Health Organization, Violence Prevention: The Evidence, 2009.