Coordinated Community Response and Implementation

Last updated July 2013

In partnership with UN Women, The Advocates for Human Rights created the following sections for UN Women's Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. This section, along with sections addressing other forms of violence against women and girls, may be found under Legislation at www.endvawnow.org.

  • Coordinated community response is an intervention strategy developed by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP) in Duluth, Minnesota, USA. This strategy, often called the "Duluth model," is a "system of networks, agreements, processes and applied principles created by the local shelter movement, criminal justice agencies, and human service programs that were developed in a small northern Minnesota city over a fifteen year period. It is still a project in the making." From:  Ellen Pence & Martha McMahon, A Coordinated Community Response to Domestic Violence (1999), The National Training Project, Duluth, Minnesota. Given the various health, legal, economic and social needs of dowry-related violence victims, coordinating the response across sectors will promote protection of survivors/complainants.
  • Although there is no one model that will work in every context, the model used by DAIP in Duluth is one of the most successful coordinated community response projects and has been adapted for use in communities in many different parts of the world. See: Adapting the Duluth Model, StopVAW, The Advocates for Human Rights; and Coordinated Community Response, StopVAW, The Advocates for Human Rights.
  • Legislation should include provisions that require agency collaboration and communication in addressing dowry-related and domestic violence. NGO advocates who directly serve victims should have leadership roles in such collaborative efforts. When police, judicial officials, NGOs that provide direct service to victims of violence, and medical providers coordinate their efforts to protect women of dowry-related violence and hold abusers accountable, these efforts are more successful. Coordination helps to ensure that the system works faster and better for victims; that victims are protected and receive the services they need; and that abusers are held accountable and cease their abusive behavior.

(See: Council of Europe General Recommendation Rec(2002)5, para. 27 Benefits of Coordination, StopVAW, The Advocates for Human Rights; Goals and Strategies of Intervention, StopVAW, The Advocates for Human Rights; and Community Response Participants, StopVAW, The Advocates for Human Rights; See also: section on Implementation of Laws)

Example: Bangladesh’s Multi-Sectoral Programme on Violence Against Women, a joint collaboration between the Bangladesh and Danish governments, is housed under the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. As part of the program, it coordinates a one-stop crisis centre for women victims of violence in hospitals. These centres provide: victims with health care, police assistance, social services, legal assistance, counseling, shelter aid, and medico-legal examinations.

  • Many nations have provisions which mandate cooperation by state agencies.

 

Example: one of the objectives of Albania’s law is:

a. To set up a coordinated network of responsible authorities for protection, support and rehabilitation of victims, mitigation of consequences and prevention of domestic violence[.]

 

CASE STUDY: Pakistan’s Domestic Violence Bill 2009, which incorporates dowry into the definition of domestic violence (Article 4) establishes a Protection Team. The Protection Team is to be composed of a female Union Councillor, a female police officer and male officer not below the rank of Assistant Sub-Inspector.  The Protection Team is in charge assisting victims of domestic violence, including entering the place where domestic violence is alleged until victim protection can be assured; assisting the victim in obtaining medical treatment, relocating to a safe place with her consent, preparing an application for a protection order, and; documenting and maintaining a record of the domestic violence incidents and applications, protection orders and service providers (Article 6). When providing for a protection team, lawmakers should ensure that the unit includes or collaborates with advocates, NGO representatives and social service providers. Laws should also promote coordination among and consultation with health care providers, child protection agencies, the media, clergy and religious leaders, employers, businesses, poverty organizations, professional associations (e.g., of doctors, lawyers), and government agencies.

  • Spain’s law states that “The female victims of gender violence are entitled to receive care, crisis, support and refuge, and integrated recovery services…Such services will act in coordination with each other and in collaboration with the Police, Violence against Women Judges, the health services, and the institutions responsible for providing victims with legal counsel, in the corresponding geographical zone.” Art. 19

Examples:

Spain: Spain’s law also provides for funding and evaluation of these coordination procedures. Article 19

India: In India, the Anna Nagar All Women Police Station establishes an NGO presence to offer services to victims. Police received an orientation, and a press release of crisis numbers in English and Tamil is sent to local newspapers. A co-coordinator available at the station provides information on NGO support services, and three crisis counselors available at the police station provide counseling. There is also a 24-hour crisis line. Police can request an NGO representative to accompany them to home calls. The coordinator and police inspector have together mapped out cases for follow-up consultation, as well as coordinate case documentation and management. The coordinator and a female police officer have conducted outreach to distribute crisis numbers to homes. (See: Prasanna Poornachandra, A Domestic Violence Coordinated Project - Going Beyond Victim Support, 2006, p. 115)

Implementation of a coordinated community response

Coordinated community response programs work to create a network of support for victims and their families that is both available and accessible. They also use the full extent of the community’s legal system to protect victims, hold perpetrators accountable, and reinforce the community’s intolerance of violence against women.

Inter-agency coordination is a critical component of a coordinated community response response. A single case of domestic or dowry-related violence, for example, may involve multiple laws and regulations, various levels of government and numerous intervening agencies and groups. In the course of a day, that single case may be in the hands of multiple practitioners throughout the civil and criminal justice systems as well as service agencies. Coordination of responses and accountability of those practitioners can significantly increase the effective implementation of new laws created to protect victims, prosecute offenders, and prevent further violence. Interagency coordination involves:

  • Creating a common vision and action plan
  • Enabling communication and linkages between agencies
  • Providing clear, written mandates to each responsible agency
  • Establishing an entity to monitor implementation of the coordinated action

(See: Domestic Violence: Legislation and its Implementation, 40-45, UNIFEM (2009))

Legislation should include the following strategies in order to achieve a coordinated community response:

·         Assist the complainant/survivor with retrieving her personal belongings and dowry;

·         Assist the complainant/survivor with claims against illegal evictions and/or dispossession of the marital residence. 

·         Ensure safety of the survivor as the primary and central concern through an effective police response, emergency orders for protection and access to emergency shelter;

·         Mandate crisis intervention services (hotlines, legal advocacy, medical care, financial and housing assistance);

·         Include provisions for an effective and coordinated justice system response, such as an appropriate and timely police response, appropriate prosecutorial and judicial response, coordination of information between all legal actors, victim advocates, dowry and marriage registration bodies, and enforcement of orders for protection;

·         Provide for an appropriate response to the abuser, which consistently hold abusers accountable, including arrest and appropriate sanctions;

·         Provide for follow-up services for complainant/survivors such as counseling, support groups, services for children, abuser treatment services, assistance with employment, housing, health care and child care;

·         Mandate training of personnel in all systems;

·         Include provisions which mandate coordination and monitoring of interventions such as advisory committees or councils, court watch, data collection and reporting, and accountability systems.

See: Goals and Strategies of Intervention, Stop VAW, The Advocates for Human Rights; Implementation of Laws on Violence against Women.

Example: Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) initiates coordinated community responses to combat acid based violence in Bangladesh. Victims of acid attacks are referred to the ASF hospital, where they undergo surgery and physical therapy. ASF lawyers are assigned to every new victim brought into the hospital. Lawyers coordinate with police and prosecutors to ensure a thorough and speedy trial. To help survivors reintegrate into society, ASF has partnered with other organizations to help provide job placement and economic independence. On the advocacy level, ASF arranges meetings with local governments to help raise awareness about this form of violence. They also conduct trainings for other doctors and nurses so they can better treat the acid attacked patients.

(See: http://www.acidsurvivors.org)

CASE STUDY:  Engaging traditional leaders in combating domestic violence in Cameroon.

Gender-based violence in Cameroon is manifested by sexual violence, harmful practices, and domestic violence. Women in Cameroon experience physical and psychological domestic violence on a regular basis.  This violence is the result of a belief in women’s subordinate status, the shame involved in reporting the violence, and the lack of an effective state response to the violence.  In 2007, a Cameroonian NGO, The Centre for Human Rights and Peace Advocacy (CHRAPA), sponsored by The Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence Against Women, UNIFEM, began a multi-level project to address these concerns. The project consisted of:  establishing a program of legal assistance to victims; educating the public and certain target groups such as police, women’s group leaders, and traditional authorities; endeavoring to pass a draft law against gender-based violence; and carrying out a baseline survey in the project area in order to obtain statistics on VAW, including its forms, frequency, and perpetrators.

The project team employed a participatory management system which involved all of the stakeholders in planning their roles to execute the project.  This created an informed and vested group of stakeholders who supported the goals of the project. Stakeholder involvement by one group in particular was found to create a positive outcome.  A Network of Traditional Authorities, or fons, was formed. These area chiefs determined strategies to end gender-based violence in their area and implemented restitution for victims of gender-based violence. Project managers reported that these traditional authorities, who were once the custodians of violent practices against women, are now calling upon their communities to refrain from these practices.  The fons have continued to hold traditional meetings to raise awareness, to monitor achievements, and to deal with cases of abuse. Violence against women is a regular agenda item at these traditional meetings, and CHRAPA keeps the fons up-to-date on issues of violence against women.

(See: Section on Implementation of Laws)

Example: Poland’s “Safer Together” program to implement its National Programme Against Domestic Violence. “Safer Together” calls for improving cooperation between organizations to assist victims and aims to develop a consistent system of procedures to exchange information among all entities involved in counteracting domestic violence.

The UNODC Southern Africa and the South Africa Department of Social Development created one-stop service centres for domestic violence victims and their children. These centres integrate government and community services to provide aid to victims and to promote prevention programs, including radio shows, school programs, and work with young male prison inmates. (See: “Project Counters Domestic Violence in South Africa,” UNODC Update No. 4 (2005))