Violence Against Women in Estonia
Estonia
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last updated October 2014
 

Population of women: 722,000/1,340,000
Life expectancy of women (at birth): 80
School life expectancy for women: 17
Women's adult literacy: 100%
Unemployment of women:
11.8%
Women engaged in economic activity:
57%

Source: U.N. Statistics Division, Social Indicators, updated December 2012 

 

 

Introduction

Estonia gained its independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991 and joined the European Union (EU) in 2004.[i] On October 21, 1991, Estonia acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (“CEDAW Convention”).[ii]  Estonia has neither signed nor ratified the Council of Europe Convention on violence against women and domestic violence (“Istanbul Convention”), which entered into force on August 1, 2014.[iii]

The CEDAW Committee in 2007 expressed its continuing concern “about the prevalence of violence against women in Estonia, including domestic violence” and “the lack of a specific law on domestic violence against women which provides for protection and exclusion orders and access to legal aid."[iv] In 2013, the U.N. Committee against Torture urged Estonia to adopt comprehensive legislation on violence against women, including domestic violence and marital rape, and to investigate and punish trafficking in women and children.[v] As of October 2014, Estonia had no comprehensive laws on violence against women or specific civil and criminal laws on domestic violence. 

Gender Equality

The Constitution of Estonia, amended most recently in 2007, provides that all constitutional rights and freedoms are granted equally to Estonian citizens, citizens of other states, and stateless persons in Estonia (Section 2.9).[vi]  Section 2.12 guarantees equality for everyone before the law, and prohibits discrimination and incitement of hatred based on several protected grounds, including sex.[vii]

In April 2004, the Estonian Parliament passed the Gender Equality Act (“the Act”).[viii] The parliament amended the Act several times, comprehensively in 2008 and 2009[ix] and most recently in April 2013.[x] The Act applies to “all areas of social life,” excluding only the family and religious spheres.[xi] The Act’s stated purpose is to,

[E]nsure equal treatment of men and women as provided for in the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia and to promote equality of men and women as a fundamental human right and for the public good in all areas of social life.[xii]

Chapter 2 of the Act prohibits direct and indirect discrimination based on sex.[xiii]  Direct discrimination based on sex is defined as occurring when “one person is treated less favourably on grounds of sex than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation.”[xiv] Indirect discrimination based on sex occurs where an apparently neutral provision, criterion, practice or activity would put persons of one sex at a particular disadvantage compared with persons of the other sex, unless that provision, criterion, practice or activity is objectively justified by a legitimate aim, and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.[xv]

Chapter 3 requires state and local governments, educational institutions and employers to promote gender equality.[xvi]  The Act also allows victims of discrimination to apply for civil damages from a court, labour dispute committee or the Chancellor of Justice.[xvii]

Gender discrimination in Estonia also carries criminal penalties. Article 152 of the Penal Code, "Violation of Equality," punishes the unlawful restriction of rights or granting of preferences to a person based on protected grounds, including gender, by a fine or maximum sentence of one year in prison.[xviii]  Article 151, "Incitement to Social Hatred," punishes the public incitement to hatred or violence based on protected grounds, including gender, by a fine or up to three years in prison.[xix]

The 2004 Gender Equality Act created a Gender Equality Commissioner to monitor compliance with the Act, review discrimination complaints, and generally act as an expert on gender equality issues for the government.[xx] In 2008, Estonia passed the Equal Treatment Act (ETA), which prohibits discrimination based on several grounds, including race, nationality and color.[xxi] Effective in 2009, the ETA changed the title of the Gender Equality Commissioner to the Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner (“the Commissioner”), expanding the scope of the Commissioner’s duties to include monitoring compliance with the requirements of both the ETA and Gender Equality Act.[xxii]

The 2004 Gender Equality Act also authorized the establishment of a Gender Equality Council within the Ministry of Social Policy, to serve as an advisory body to the Estonian government on gender equality objectives, strategies, and policies and on the effectiveness of national programs in promoting gender equality.[xxiii]

Implementation

Inequality between men and women in Estonian society continues to limit women’s progress in the country.[xxiv] Estonian women earn on average 30 to 40% less than Estonian men, even for equivalent work.[xxv] In 2007, the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW Committee) expressed its concern about:

the persistence of patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society in Estonia, which are reflected in women’s educational choices, their situation in the labour market and their underrepresentation in political and public life and decision-making positions.[xxvi]

The CEDAW Committee also found that Estonia lacked “a comprehensive, consistent and sustainable approach to policies and programmes aimed at achieving women’s equality with men.”[xxvii] The Committee expressed its concern about the (then impending) expansion of the Commissioner’s duties beyond gender and the impact this could have on the ability of the Commissioner to fulfill his or her responsibilities under the Gender Equality Act.[xxviii]

The UN Human Rights Committee (“HRC”) in 2010 highlighted the labor market pay gap, and “the prevalence of discrimination against women in” Estonia.[xxix] The HRC called on Estonia to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the Commissioner and the Chancellor of Justice in handling discrimination complaints, provide more human financial resources to the Gender Equality Department and Commissioner and do more to eliminate gender stereotypes in the labor market and society.[xxx]

Estonia responded to the HRC in July 2013, stating that it had authorized a modest increase in the budget for the Commissioner’s office in 2013 and had secured additional funding through 2015 from international donors to “enhance legal protection against discrimination and promote gender equality” by hiring several expert staff to support the Commissioner’s work.[xxxi] The Ministry of Social Affairs finalized the formation of the Gender Equality Council in October 2013.[xxxii]

Domestic Violence

Estonia has no laws on domestic violence. Domestic violence is instead addressed through a patchwork of general provisions in the civil and criminal codes governing restraining orders, temporary restraining orders, and crimes against the person.

Section 1055 of the Estonian “Law of Obligations Act” authorizes victims of violence, including domestic violence victims, to apply for civil restraining orders against perpetrators in cases of “bodily injury, damage to health, violation of inviolability of personal life or any other personality rights.”[xxxiii] Victims may apply for such orders in a civil action against their abuser, which limits the effectiveness of such restraining orders in emergency situations. However, under 2007 amendments to Estonia’s Criminal Procedure Code, victims may request that courts issue longer-term restraining orders “on the basis of section 1055” of the Obligations Act for up to three years if the perpetrator is convicted of a crime against the victim.[xxxiv]

In 2006, Estonia revised its Criminal Procedure Code to authorize courts to issue temporary restraining orders (TROs) against persons suspected or accused of committing a crime against another person or child, which would include criminal acts involving domestic violence.[xxxv] Courts may issue a TRO to protect the “private life or other personality rights of a victim,” with the victim’s consent and after the court conducts a preliminary investigation that may include interrogating the victim.[xxxvi] In 2011, Estonia updated the Criminal Procedure Code to require that victims, perpetrators, police and border guards receive copies of TROs.[xxxvii]

However, in 2011, Estonia also authorized perpetrators to request a court or judge to review the validity of a criminal TRO after four months, and in cases where the perpetrator is excluded from his home, after one month.[xxxviii] Judges must review the request within five days and summon the victim to testify.[xxxix] Estonia has no provision for emergency protective orders. 

Sections 120-122 of the Estonian Penal Code address “Acts of Violence,” including threats of violence (Section 120), physical abuse (Section 121) and torture (Section 122). [xl] These articles may be applied to cases of domestic violence and are punishable by a maximum sentence of one year, three years, and five years, respectively.[xli]  Section 58 of the Penal Code also includes the commission of a criminal offense against a financially or family-related dependent as an aggravating circumstance for sentencing purposes.[xlii]

In 2010, the Estonian government approved a national Development Plan for Reducing Violence for the years 2010-2014.[xliii]  The Development Plan recognizes that domestic violence is a serious problem in Estonia, stating “[t]he actual level of domestic violence is significantly higher than reflected in police statistics.”[xliv]  The Plan notes that,

Domestic violence is dangerous due to the fact that it is seldom a single event – violence becomes usually part of the normal [behavior] for the attacker. Domestic violence in a family does not endanger only adults, but also children for whom encountering violence is dangerous even as a witness since this creates a pattern of [behavior] where violence is accepted and which the child takes inevitably along from home.[xlv]

The Development Plan’s stated goals are to prevent domestic violence by increasing public awareness of domestic violence, especially at-risk groups, and thus change the public attitude towards domestic violence.[xlvi] It also calls for enhanced support to victims of domestic violence, including better training for professionals, better shelters, and medical, legal and psychological services.[xlvii] Finally, the Development Plan envisions more efficient investigations and protection of victims, in addition to the implementation of rehabilitation programs for the abusers.[xlviii]  A final report on the implementation of the Development Plan is due in March 2015.[xlix]

Prevention of domestic violence and victim support has been incorporated into the government’s “Guidelines for Development of Criminal Policy” through 2018.[l] Additionally, domestic violence is the only form of violence against women specifically addressed by national policy in Estonia.[li]

Prevalence and Implementation

A prevalence survey published in 2010 and administered by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs found that at least 38% of Estonian women had experienced physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime, 41% had experienced psychological violence, and another 7% reported experiencing sexual violence.[lii] Despite flaws in how the data was collected for the survey, as noted by Women Against Violence Europe (WAVE), the survey still showed that women were far more likely to experience “severe violence and were more often likely to experience it repeatedly.”[liii] The same survey found that 75% of Estonians believed that domestic violence was a serious problem in Estonia.[liv]

WAVE criticized the government of Estonia for failing to maintain adequate and publicly available statistics on domestic violence, such as the nature and number of criminal TROs or civil restraining orders.[lv] While the government does release general statistics on the number of domestic violence cases prosecuted as physical abuse under Section 121 of the Penal Code, these statistics are not disaggregated by gender or by the relationship of the victim and perpetrator.[lvi]

WAVE reports that domestic violence perpetrators in Estonia rarely face jail time. If they are prosecuted, offenders are generally required to pay a fine, engage in reconciliation with the victim or perform community service.[lvii] The U.S. State Department 2013 Country Report for Estonia contains more detailed but similar statistics, finding that the majority of domestic violence perpetrators in 2012 were sentenced to probation or community service (73%).[lviii] Only thirteen percent went to prison and the remaining 14% received a fine.[lix] Additionally, of the 5311 reports of physical abuse in 2012, 2,231 were cases of domestic violence, an 11% increase over the previous year.[lx] One-quarter of these cases were prosecuted.[lxi]

The increase in criminal cases involving domestic violence is attributed, at least in part, to the government’s efforts to raise awareness about domestic violence.[lxii] This has also strained resources and support services for victims, as well as the ability of police and prosecutors to handle domestic violence cases.[lxiii]

The Council of Europe found that Estonia did not hold regular trainings on domestic violence for key professionals, including police, judges and prosecutors, in contrast to forty-five other European countries in 2013.[lxiv]  Estonia was also one of a handful of European countries that did not provide regular trainings to social workers or health workers on violence against women and the unique needs of victims.[lxv] Requiring the victim to leave her home for shelter, rather than the perpetrator, is also a problem in Estonia, although attitudes may be shifting.[lxvi]

Shelter and Support Services

As of 2014, Estonia has one national women’s helpline that operates 24 hours a day and is free of charge.[lxvii] The number of women’s shelters in Estonia has increased steadily since the first shelter was opened in 2001 and by 2014, the country had 12 NGO-run shelters with a total of 86 spaces for women victims of violence and their children.[lxviii]  Estonia requires approximately 48 more shelter spaces to comply with Council of Europe recommendations on minimum standards for support services.[lxix] Women may stay indefinitely in the shelters and receive free services such as counseling.[lxx] The government of Estonia provides 80% of shelter funding.[lxxi]

Sexual Assault

Sections 141 to 147 of the Penal Code outlaw “Offenses against Sexual Self-determination,” including rape and other forms of sexual assault.[lxxii] Section 141(1) defines rape as,"[s]exual intercourse with a person against his or her will by using force or taking advantage of a situation in which the person is not capable of initiating resistance or comprehending the situation."[lxxiii] Perpetrators convicted of rape under Section 141 face one to five years in prison.[lxxiv] If specific aggravating factors are present, including gang rape, the death of the victim, or if the victim is a minor under the age of 18, the sentence may increase to six to fifteen years' imprisonment (Section 141(2)).[lxxv]

Section 143 punishes “compelling a person to engage in sexual intercourse . . . by taking advantage of the dependency of the victim” on the perpetrator, by up to three years' imprisonment.[lxxvi] Sections 145 and 146 prohibit statutory rape or “satisfaction of sexual desire” with a child under the age of 14 and punish both crimes with up to 5 years in prison.[lxxvii]

According to the Council of Europe, Estonia treats spousal rape in the same manner as rape outside of marriage, as a criminal offense.[lxxviii] However, the requirement that the perpetrator use force or that the victim prove she was incapable of resisting the attack likely means that rape is difficult to prove in Estonia.

Estonia has no rape or sexual assault crisis centers for women, although according to WAVE, women victims of all forms of violence, including sexual violence, may seek help at Estonia’s twelve women’s shelters.[lxxix] The shelters serve women survivors of violence and their children.[lxxx] According to Council of Europe recommendations, Estonia should have 6 rape crisis centers and at least 48 more shelter places.[lxxxi]

Sexual Harassment

According to data published in 2014 by the European Union’s Agency for Fundamental Rights, approximately 44% of Estonian women have experienced some form of “threatening” sexual harassment since the age of 15.[lxxxii]

Estonia’s 2013 Gender Equality Act (“the Act”) prohibits sexual harassment and gender-based harassment as a form of direct discrimination based on sex.[lxxxiii] The Act also prohibits “less favourable treatment of a person due to rejection of or submission to harassment.”[lxxxiv] The Act applies to “all areas of social life,” including employment.[lxxxv] Sexual harassment is defined as:

[A]ny form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct or activity of a sexual nature . . .  with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating a disturbing, intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment.[lxxxvi]

Gender-based harassment is “unwanted conduct or activity related to the sex of a person” that has the same purpose or effect as sexual harassment.[lxxxvii]

Section 6 of the Act addresses sex discrimination in “professional life” and requires employers to take necessary measures to stop sexual and gender-based harassment in the workplace.[lxxxviii] Women may demand that the employer address the harassment and sue for damages. [lxxxix] An employer is “deemed” to have discriminated against an employee if he subjects her to sexual or gender-based harassment or if he fails to protect the employee from such harassment.[xc]

Estonia has not criminalized sexual harassment in the workplace or other public spheres, nor does it prohibit or criminalize stalking.[xci]

Trafficking in Women

The 2014 U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons Report classifies Estonia as a “Tier 2” country, which means the country does not fully comply with minimum standards for eliminating human trafficking but has made efforts to do so.[xcii]  According to the report, Estonia is a “source, transit and destination country” for the sex trafficking of women and girls, including Estonian women and girls trafficked within Estonia and in Europe.[xciii] Estonian women who seek employment abroad through fake marriages are also vulnerable to traffickers.[xciv] Estonian women and men are trafficked for labor throughout Europe and the UK, while other nationalities such as Ukrainians are subject to forced labor within Estonia.[xcv]

Estonia in 2010 approved a National Development Plan for Reducing Violence for the years 2010-2014 (“Development Plan”).[xcvi]  Objective 4 of the Development Plan addresses combatting and preventing trafficking in persons.[xcvii] It identifies areas where Estonia should strengthen existing laws and policies to combat trafficking, and recognizes that unemployed persons and persons in a weak economic situation are particularly vulnerable to trafficking.[xcviii]  The Development Plan focuses on educating vulnerable groups about trafficking, especially women and teenagers; expanding support, rehabilitation, and other services to trafficking victims, particularly women and children; improving efforts to prevent trafficking for labor; and increasing the country’s capacity to investigate trafficking cases, identify victims and train specialists.[xcix]

The Development Plan noted that Estonian law did not treat human trafficking as a separate criminal offense, hindering prosecutions, international cooperation, and data collection on the extent of illegal human trafficking in the country.[c] To address this gap, the Estonian parliament amended the Penal Code in March 2012 to criminalize human trafficking in accord with the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), ratified by Estonia on May 12, 2004.[ci] Article 133 of the Estonian Penal Code now explicitly prohibits human trafficking, which is broadly defined as:

Placing a person in a situation where he or she is forced to work under unusual conditions, engage in prostitution, beg, commit a criminal offence or perform other disagreeable duties, or keeping a person in such situation, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, violence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless or vulnerable situation of the person.[cii]

Section 133 imposes a minimum sentence of one year in prison and a maximum of 15 years in prison, depending on the presence of any aggravating factors, such as trafficking in minors, use of torture, or abuse of an official position.[ciii] The Penal Code also prohibits activities related to trafficking that may not satisfy or meet the requirements of Section 133, such as supporting human trafficking (Section 133(1)), pimping (Section 133(2)), aiding prostitution (Section 133(3)), and organ trafficking (Section 138).[civ]  Section 175 punishes trafficking “in order to take advantage of minors” with prison terms of two to ten years.[cv]  

Section 259 prohibits the unlawful transport of aliens across Estonian borders, and punishment may include a maximum sentence of twelve years' imprisonment.[cvi] Abduction, child stealing and the sale or purchase of children are all punishable under Sections 134, 172 and 173, respectively.[cvii] Section 136 punishes the unlawful deprivation of liberty by a fine or a prison sentence up to five years, depending on the circumstances.[cviii]

The Criminal Policy Department in the Ministry of Justice serves as Estonia’s National Coordinator on Trafficking in Human Beings.[cix] Estonia has also established a national working group to coordinate inter-agency anti-trafficking efforts and evaluate the country’s trafficking policies, but the country lacks a specialized human trafficking police unit.[cx] However, Estonia did provide specialized training to law enforcement in human trafficking, and for the first time in 2013, provided anti-trafficking trainings to government labor inspectors.[cxi]

Estonia is a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings.[cxii] Estonia has signed, but not ratified, the Council of Europe Convention on Trafficking in Human Beings.[cxiii]

Implementation

In 2013, the U.N. Committee against Torture called on Estonia to do more to investigate and punish trafficking of women and children, provide redress for victims, and provide specialized training to police, law enforcement, and judges.[cxiv] The US State Department in 2014 reported that Estonia improved its investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes in 2013, opening several new investigations of suspected traffickers and achieving the country’s first convictions for human trafficking crimes under the amended Section 133.[cxv] However, the two convicted perpetrators received relatively light punishments, with little time served in prison by either offender.[cxvi] Additionally, despite revised state guidelines on the identification of trafficking victims, the police did not refer any victims of trafficking to government-supported NGOs serving victims in 2012 or 2013.[cxvii]

Estonian law allows trafficking victims to testify anonymously against their traffickers; however, no victim aided in a trafficking investigation or prosecution during the period 2009 to 2013, and the witness protection provisions “have never been applied in a trafficking case.”[cxviii] Victims may also apply for compensation from their traffickers, but as of 2013, no victim had ever tried.[cxix] Legal aid is reportedly difficult to obtain due to “bureaucratic” obstacles and delays,[cxx] which may impede the ability of victims to enforce their rights.

The government has held foreign labor trafficking victims in detention facilities, an action criticized by the US State Department.[cxxi] The State Department also recommends that Estonia improve its efforts to identify and assist foreign trafficking victims, including informing them of their right (since 2007) to apply for temporary residence permits.[cxxii]

Shelter and support

In April 2013, the Estonian Victim Support Act and related provisions on legal aid, and assistance for sexually abused minors and foreign trafficking victims entered into force.[cxxiii] Estonia enacted these laws in response to the European Union Directive on trafficking in human beings (2011/36/EU), which requires EU member states to establish a certain level of service and support for victims of trafficking.[cxxiv] The provisions grant trafficking victims the right to services such as shelter, psychological counseling, and health care.[cxxv]  However, the 2013 changes now require that victims file a police report in order to receive these services, and if the police decide not to open an investigation, victims will no longer be eligible for government assistance.[cxxvi]

Estonia does not have a national referral mechanism for identifying trafficking victims and referring victims of trafficking to appropriate support services.[cxxvii]  The Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs does support two shelters for trafficking victims, although funding for the shelters declined from 2012 to 2013.[cxxviii]  The government also provides funding for an NGO-run anti-trafficking hotline, which assisted 558 vulnerable individuals in 2013.[cxxix]



[i] U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook: Estonia,” https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/en.html (accessed August 18, 2014).

[ii] U.N. Treaty Collection, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, “Status as at: 28-04-2014,” https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed August 28, 2014).

[iii] Council of Europe, Treaty Office, “Council of Europe Convention on violence against women and domestic violence, CETS No. 201, Status as of 28/8/2014,” http://www.conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=210&CM=&DF=&CL=ENG (accessed August 28, 2014). 

[iv] Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Twenty-sixth session, Concluding Comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women: Estonia, Combined initial, second and third periodic reports, A/57/38, pars. 71-118 (2002).

[v] U.N. Committee against Torture, Fiftieth session, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Estonia, adopted by the Committee at its fiftieth session (6-31 May 2013).

[vii] Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, sec. 2.12.

[ix] Gender Equality Act (2009), RT I 2008, 56, 315; RT I 2009, 48, 323.

[x] Gender Equality Act (2013), RT I, 26.04.2013, 2, available in Estonian at https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/126042013002, and in English at http://legislationline.org/topics/topic/7/country/33.

[xi] Ibid., sec. 2.

[xii] The Gender Equality Act (2009), sec. 1(1).

[xiii] Ibid., ch. 2.

[xiv] Ibid. sec. 3(3).

[xv] Ibid., sec. 3(4).

[xvi] Ibid., ch. 3.

[xvii] Ibid., ch. 4.

[xviii] Penal Code of Estonia (2006), art. 152.

[xix] Penal Code of Estonia (2006), art. 151.

[xx] Gender Equality Act (2004), ch. 5.

[xxii] Gender Equality Act, sec. 15.

[xxiii] Ibid., ch. 7.

[xxiv] United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, “2013 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Estonia,” sec. 6.

[xxv] Ibid.; UN Human Rights Committee, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Estonia, CCPR/C/EST/CO/3, par. 6, August 4, 2010, available for download at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=EST&Lang=EN.

[xxvi] UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Estonia, CEDAW/C/EST/CO/4, August 10, 2007, available for download at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=EST&Lang=EN.

[xxvii] UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Estonia, CEDAW/C/EST/CO/4, par. 10, August 10, 2007, available for download at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=EST&Lang=EN.

[xxviii] Ibid., pars. 10-11.

[xxix] UN Human Rights Committee, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Estonia, CCPR/C/EST/CO/3, par. 6, August 4, 2010, available for download at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=EST&Lang=EN.

[xxx] Ibid.

[xxxii] Ibid.

[xxxiii] Law of Obligations Act (2001), RT I 2005, 39, 308, sec. 1055(1).

[xxxiv] Estonian Code of Criminal Procedure (2003), RT I 2007, 2, 7, sec. 310-1.

[xxxv] Estonian Code of Criminal Procedure (2003), RT I 2006, 31, 233, sec. 141-1.

[xxxvi] Ibid.

[xxxvii] Ibid., sec. 141-1(6).

[xxxviii] Ibid., sec. 141-2.

[xxxix] Ibid.

[xl] Penal Code of Estonia (2001), last amended July 15, 2013, secs. 120-122.

[xli] Ibid.

[xlii] Ibid., sec. 58(4).

[xliv] Ibid.

[xlv] Ibid.

[xlvi] Ibid.

[xlvii] Ibid.

[xlviii] Ibid.

[xlix] European Union Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity - PROGRESS (2007-2013), Exchange of good practices on gender equality, Measures to fight violence against women, Spain, 16-17 April 2013, Comment Paper: Estonia, 4.

[l] Ibid.

[liii] Ibid.

[liv] European Union Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity - PROGRESS (2007-2013), Exchange of good practices on gender equality, Measures to fight violence against women, Spain, 16-17 April 2013, Comment Paper: Estonia, 4.

[lv] Women Against Violence Europe (WAVE), ‘Country Report: Estonia, Violence against women and migrant and minority women (2012).

[lvi] Ibid.; U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 2013 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Estonia, sec. 6 (2013).

[lvii] WAVE Country Report: Estonia, supra n. 52.

[lviii] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 2013 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Estonia, sec. 6 (2013).

[lix] Ibid.

[lx] Ibid.

[lxi] Ibid.

[lxii] European Union Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity - PROGRESS (2007-2013), Exchange of good practices on gender equality, Measures to fight violence against women, Spain, 16-17 April 2013, Comment Paper: Estonia, 6-7.

[lxiii] Ibid., 7.

[lxv] Ibid., 39-40.

[lxvi] European Union Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity - PROGRESS (2007-2013), Exchange of good practices on gender equality, Measures to fight violence against women, Spain, 16-17 April 2013, Comment Paper: Estonia.