Guidelines for Drafting Legislation for Specific Harmful Practices

last updated June 2010

Legislation specific to many harmful practices as well as any review of the effectiveness of such legislation is limited. General principles relevant to multiple forms of harmful practices have been set forth above.  Below are some limited legislative considerations on specific harmful practices. Drafters should refer to the relevant sections of this Knowledge Asset to best tailor legislation on the harmful practices of female genital mutilation, forced and child marriage, maltreatment of widows, honor crimes and dowry-related violence to their country context. (Link to each section here.)
 
Son Preference, Female Infanticide, & Sex-Selective Abortions
In many countries there is a deeply rooted cultural preference for male children. Costly dowries, discriminatory property and family laws, and the perception that female children are not a good “investment” often makes families prefer the birth of a male child. As a result, in many countries, harmful practices exist which ensure the birth of male children and/or result in the neglect or killing of the female children. Such gender inequality and the low status of women result in sex-selective abortions or the practice of killing girl babies after they are born. Modern technology has exacerbated the prevalence of sex-selective abortions. In countries where son preference, female infanticide, and sex-selective abortions are common, the gender ration of the population is significantly skewed. Experts link this imbalance with increases in other forms of gender violence such as rape and forced marriage.
 
Legislation addressing these forms of harmful practice should include the following elements:    
  • Legislation should condemn son preference, female infanticide and sex-selective abortions;
  • Legislation should penalize anyone who performs female infanticide or sex-selective abortions, specifically including medical and non-medical personnel among those who should be penalized; 
  • Legislation should penalize those who aid and abet this harmful practice, specifically including family members among those who may be penalized;
  • Legislation should establish and fund training for all sectors and public awareness about this harmful practice and its consequences;
  • Legislation and other practices that perpetuate this harmful practice, such as dowry and discriminatory laws on succession and inheritance, should be amended or abolished; and
  • Legislation should not penalize women who are forced to undergo sex-selective abortions and should focus instead on persons who pressure, aid or abet the practice.  
Promising Practice: United Nations Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Minorities Plan of Action for the Elimination of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children
The United Nations Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Minorities adopted a Plan of Action for the Elimination of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. The Plan sets forth the following as a plan to address the specific harmful practice of son preference, female infanticide, and sex-selective abortions:
Son preference

(14) The family being the basic institution from where gender biases emanate, wide-ranging motivational campaigns should be launched to educate parents to value the worth of a girl child, so as to eliminate such biases.

(15) In view of the scientific fact that male chromosomes determine the sex of children, it is necessary to emphasize that the mother is not responsible for selection. Governments must, therefore, actively attempt to change the misconceptions regarding the responsibilities of the mother in determining the sex of the child.

(16) Non-discriminatory legislation on succession and inheritance should be introduced.

(17) In the light of the dominant role religion plays in shaping the image of women in each society, efforts should be made to remove misconceptions in religious teachings which reinforce the unequal status of women.

(18) Governments should mobilize all educational institutions and the media to change negative attitudes and values towards the female gender and project a positive image of women in general, and the girl-child in particular.

(19) Immediate measures should be taken by Governments to introduce and implement compulsory primary education and free secondary education and to increase the access of girls to technical education. Affirmative action in this field should be adopted in favour of the promotion of girls' education to achieve gender equity. Parents should be motivated to ensure the education of their daughters.

(20) Considering the importance of promoting self-esteem as a prerequisite for their higher status of women in the family and the community, Governments should take effective measures to ensure that women have access to and have control over economic resources, including land, credit, employment and other institutional facilities.

(21) Measures must be taken to provide free health care and services to women and children (in particular, girls) and to promote health consciousness among women with emphasis on their own basic health needs.

(22) Governments should regularly conduct nutritional surveys, identify nutritional gender disparities and undertake special nutritional programmes in areas where malnutrition in various forms is manifested.

(23) Governments should also undertake nutritional education programmes to address, inter alia, the special nutritional needs of women at various stages of their life cycle.

(24) As son preference is often associated with future security, Governments should take measures to introduce a social security system especially for widows, women-headed families and the aged.

(25) Governments are urged to take measures to eliminate gender stereotyping in the educational system, including removing gender bias from the curricula and other teaching materials.

(26) Governments should encourage by all means the activities of non-governmental organizations concerned with this problem.

(27) Women's organizations should mobilize all efforts to eradicate prejudicial and internalized values which project a diminished image of women. They should take action towards raising awareness among women about their potential and self-esteem, the lack of which is one of the factors for perpetuating discrimination.

(28) Public opinion makers, national institutions, religious leaders, political parties, trade unions, legislators, educators, medical practitioners and all other organizations should be actively involved in combating all forms of discrimination against women and girls.

(29) Gender disaggregated data on morbidity, mortality, education, health, employment and political participation should be collected regularly, analysed and utilized for the formulation of policy and programmes for girls and women.
In addition, the Plan states:
(49) Female infanticide and female foeticide should be openly condemned by all Governments as a flagrant violation of the basic right to life of the girl-child.
Promising Practice: India – The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994 (and amendments)
Under the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994 (and amendments) sex-selective abortions are illegal in India. As set forth in the preamble, the Act was enacted in 1996 to curb the increasingly low female-to-male ratio and put an end to sex-selective abortions:
An Act to provide for the regulation of the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purpose of detecting genetic or metabolic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities or certain congenital malformations or sex linked disorders and for the prevention of the misuse of such techniques for the purpose of pre-natal sex determination leading to female foeticide; and, for matters connected there with or incidental thereto.
The Act consists of eight chapters which define:
  • Regulations on the establishments that conduct these tests i.e. genetic counseling centres, genetic clinics, genetic laboratories;
  • Regulation of the actual pre-natal diagnostic techniques;
  • The administrative structures that must be established for the effective implementation of this Act i.e. the Central Supervisory board and the State Appropriate Authority and Advisory Committee;
  • The prerequisites to be fulfilled before conducting these tests;
  • Procedure for registration of the establishments, grounds for cancellation or suspension of registration;
  • Offences and Penalties; and
  • Miscellaneous items including the maintenance of records and power to search and seize records.

The Act prohibits and penalizes the use of any form of technology to determine and disclose the sex of a fetus. The Act specifically prohibits any person, such as a husband or family member, from pressuring the woman to seek or undergo any pre-natal diagnostic testing for the purposes of determining the sex of the fetus. It also prohibits and punishes any advertisements relating to pre-natal sex determination. The Act allows for the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the detection of genetic abnormalities or pregnancy complications but restricts those procedures to specific registered institutions and by qualified personnel who have to abide by clear rules set forth in the Act. The Act allows for penalties of five years in jail and a fine of USD $200-$1,000. The Act continues to be amended to address newer technologies for the selection of sex before and after conception. 

Acid Attacks
An acid attack involves the premeditated throwing of acid on a victim, usually on her face. In addition to causing psychological trauma, acid attacks result in severe pain, permanent disfigurement, subsequent infections, and often blindness in one or both eyes. Perpetrators commit acid attacks for a number of reasons, including revenge for refusal of a marriage proposal or other romantic or sexual advances, land disputes, perceived dishonor, and jealousy. While acid attacks are most prevalent in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India and Pakistan, they have also been reported in Afghanistan and in parts of Africa and Europe. Experts attribute the prevalence of the practice in part to the easy availability of acids. See: Statistics, Cambodian Acid Survivors Charity; Good Practices on Harmful Practices Expert Group Report, p. 22.

Legislation addressing acid attacks should include the following elements:    
  • Legislation should define an acid attack as any assault perpetrated through the use of acid. Since acid attacks may be motivated by one of several different reasons, legislation should focus on the acts that constitute the crime, rather than the motive;
  • Legislation should penalize anyone who commits an acid attack, specifically including family members among those who may be penalized;
  • Legislation should penalize those who aid and abet this harmful practice, and should include family members among those who may be penalized;
  • Legislation should make acid attacks a “transferable intent” crime, providing the same penalties regardless of whether the person injured was the intended victim;
  • Legislation should provide for penalties of prison time, fines and education; 
  • Legislation should provide that sentencing guidelines reflect the gravity of the offense; 
  • Legislation should provide for enhanced penalties if a victim dies as a result of an acid attack. The perpetrator should be prosecuted under the murder statutes of the penal code. The specific law on the acid attack should provide a term of imprisonment and fine which is no less severe than what is provided under the murder statutes of the general penal code with the exception of capital punishment;
  • Legislation should require sellers of acids to acquire licenses;
  • Legislation should criminalize the unlicensed sale of acids;
  • Legislation should require sellers of acids to create and maintain a record of each sale and the identity of each purchaser;
  • Legislation should impose a duty upon medical providers to report all cases of bodily harm caused by acid to law enforcement;
  • Legislation should mandate that police officers investigate any case reported by a medical provider where bodily harm was caused by acid;
  • Legislation should establish and fund public awareness campaigns and training for all sectors about this harmful practice and its consequences;
  • Legislation and other practices that perpetuate this harmful practice, such as honour crimes, should be amended or abolished;
  • Legislation should allow victims to pursue civil remedies against their attackers. Monetary damages should include the cost of reconstructive surgery;  
  • Legislation should provide for restitution or reparations separate from any criminal case and provide mechanisms of collection that the victim may easily use to collect the order for restitution from the perpetrator; 
  • Legislation should also provide that a court may amend or issue an order for restitution at a later time if the true extent of the survivor’s loss was not known at the time of the hearing on the restitution request or at the time of disposition of the case; and
  • Legislation should provide legal, medical, and other types of rehabilitation services for victims.

See: Good Practices on Harmful Practices Expert Group Report, pp. 22-23.

Promising Practice – Bangladesh’s Acid Crime Prevention Act (2002) and Acid Control Act (2002)
In 2002, the Bangladeshi Government passed two Acts, the Acid Control Act 2002 and the Acid Crime Prevention Act 2002. The Acts address punishment of those involved in the acid attack itself and restrict the import and sale of acid in open markets.

Some important features of the laws include:
  • Establishment of a National Acid Control Council Fund;
  • Establishment of a Rehabilitation Centre for victims of acid crimes;
  • Treatment for victims of acid crimes;
  • Provision of Legal Aid for victims of acid crimes;
  • Locking up shops to prevent the sale of acid and banning transport engaged in carrying acid;
  • Temporary cancellation of acid selling licenses;
  • Capital punishment of the acid thrower and penalty of up to Tk 1 lakh (approximately US$ 1,709);
  • Judgment in special tribunals;
  • Judgment in the absence of the criminal;
  • Power of the Magistrate to take record of witnesses anywhere.
(See: The UN Secretary-General’s database on Violence Against Women, Full text: Acid Control Act 2002 (Bengali), Acid Crime Prevention Act 2002 (Bengali))

Promising Practice – Cambodia’s Draft Law on Acid Attacks
In response to the increasing number of acid attacks in Cambodia, the government has drafted a new law regulating the sale and use of chemicals.  The draft legislation provides for stiffer penalties for perpetrators, most of whom would receive life sentences.  The draft law also establishes a state-run medical center and provides improved medical care and social integration programs for victims.

See: CAMBODIA: Strict penalties planned for acid attacks, IRIN (28 April 2010). 

Promising Practice – Pakistan’s Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act
Passed unanimously by parliament on May 10, 2011, Pakistan's acid law regulates the manufacturing and supply of acids, which had previously gone unregulated in that country. The Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act broadly defines the crime as “voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous means or substances,” phrasing the definition so as to allow for punishment even where someone other than the intended victim is injured. The Act provides for a maximum penalty of life imprisonment for those convicted of the crime. It includes a civil remedy provision that enables victims to seek monetary damages from perpetrators and provides an enforcement mechanism if a perpetrator fails to pay the ordered damages. The bill also includes a provision regulating the sale of acids and criminalizing the sale of acids by someone who is not licensed to sell them. In addition, the bill contains a provision requiring sellers of acids to keep detailed records on each sale.

The Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act provides, in pertinent part:
WHEREAS the Constitution recognizes the fundamental rights of women and children to security of life and liberty, and dignity of person;

AND WHEREAS it is expedient to institutionalize measures which prevent and protect women and children from acid crimes and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto;

It is hereby enacted as follows:
1. Short Title and Commencement. -
(1) This Act may be called the Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act, 2010.

(2) It shall come into force at once.
2. Amendment of Section 332, Act XLV of 1860. -  In the Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 (Act XLV of 1860), hereinafter referred to as the said Code, [section 332 sub-section (1) shall be amended as following:-
"332. Hurt
(1) Whoever causes pain, harm, disease, infirmity or injury to any person or impairs, disables, DISFIGURES, DEFACES or dismembers ANY organ of the body or any part thereof of any person without causing his death, is said to cause hurt."]
3. Insertion of new sections 336A and 336B, Act XLV of 1860. - In the said Code, after section 336, the following new Sections 336A and 336B shall be inserted, namely:-
336A. Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous means or substances. Whoever voluntarily causes hurt by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance or acid, or by means of any explosive or arsenic substance or by means of any substance which is deleterious to the human body to come into contact with, to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood shall be called to have caused hurt by dangerous means or substances.
336B. Punishment for causing hurt by dangerous means or substances.
(1) Whoever, by doing any act with the intention of causing hurt to any person, or with the intention that is likely to cause hurt to any person, causes hurt by dangerous means or substances to any person, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to the whole of life, or with fine which may not be less than five hundred thousand rupees, or with both.
(2) Notwithstanding the provision contained in sub-section (1) hereof, the court may, at any stage of the trial on an application by the aggrieved person, direct the accused to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses incurred and losses suffered by the aggrieved person and such relief may include, but is not limited to:-
(a) loss of earning; and

(b) medical expense.
(3) The accused shall pay monetary relief to the person aggrieved within the period specified in the order made in terms of sub-section (2) and in accordance with the directions of the Court in this regard.

(4) The court may, upon failure on part of the accused to make payment in terms of the order under sub-section (3) direct an employer or debtor, of the accused, to directly pay the aggrieved person or to deposit with the court a portion of the wages or salaries or debt due to or accrued to the credit of the accused, and this amount may be adjusted towards the monetary relief payable by the accused or may recover the same as arrears of land revenue.
5.  Amendment of Section 2(1), Act XII of 1919. In the Poisons Act, 1919 (Act XII of 1919), hereinafter referred to as the said Act, in section 2,-
(i) for sub-section (1) the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"(1) The Provincial Government may by rules consistent with this Act regulate or prohibit, within the whole or any part of the territories under its administration, except under and in accordance with the conditions of a license granted as provided by this Act and those rules, the manufacture, possession, use, sale and purchase, whether wholesale or retail of poisons or any specified poison."
(ii) after sub-section (2), the following sub-sections (3), (4) and (5) shall be added, namely:-
"(3) Except as provided by sub-section (4), a person shall not manufacture, distribute, supply or sell by wholesale or retail any poison unless he is licensed pursuant to the provisions of Section 2A to do so.

(4) Subject to this Act and the rules,-
(a) a pharmaceutical chemist is authorized to manufacture, have in his possession, and to use, supply or sell at his pharmacy in the ordinary course of his retail business any preparation, admixture or extract containing any poison;

(b) a medical practitioner or veterinary surgeon is authorized to have in his possession and to use, supply or sell in the lawful practice of his profession any poison; and

(c) any dentist is authorized to have in his possession and to use in the lawful practice of his profession any poison.

(d) any other category of person notified by Provincial Government in the official gazette shall also be allowed to have possession and use in the lawful practice of his profession any poison.
(5) Subject to this Act and the rules,
(a) it shall not be lawful to sell any non-medicinal poison to any person unless that person is either:-
(i) certified in writing in the prescribed manner by a person authorized under the rules to give a certificate for the purposes of this section, or

(ii) known by the seller or by a pharmacist in the employment of the seller where the sale is effected
(b) the seller of any such poison shall not deliver it until:-
(i) he has made or caused to be made an entry in a book to be kept for this purpose stating in the prescribed form the date of the sale, the name and address of the purchaser and of the person (if any) by whom the certificate required under paragraph (a) above was given, the name and quantity of the article sold, and the purpose for which it is required to the purchaser, and

(ii) the purchaser has signed the entry.”
6. Insertion of new Section 2(A), Act XII of 1919. - In the said Act, after Section 2, the following new Section shall be inserted, namely:-
"2A. License to sell poisons
(1) Subject to this Act and the rules to be prescribed, a licensing authority may grant a license:-
(a) to make any poison;

(b) to manufacture and distribute or sell by wholesale any poison;

(c) to sell by retail any poison; or

(d) to import across a customs frontier any poison.
in or at any pharmacy or other premises or place of business specified in the license, to any person who satisfies the licensing authority that he is a fit and proper person to be the holder of such a license.
(2) An application for a license under this section shall be made in the prescribed manner to the licensing authority . . .

(3) The licensing authority shall not grant any license under this section unless and until it is satisfied that the premises of the applicant are suitable for the purpose in respect of which application is made for the license, and are properly and hygienically equipped for that purpose.

(4) All existing pharmacies, dealers, vendors, manufacturers, suppliers and other persons who require a license pursuant to sub-section (1), shall apply to the licensing authority for the relevant license not later tha[n] six months from the date of framing of rules under this Act.”

7.  Substitute of Section 6, Act XII of 1919. - In the said Act, for Section 6, the following shall be substituted, namely:-

6. Penalties
(1) Whoever—
(a) commits a breach of any condition contained in Section 2 or of any rule made under Section 2,

(b) imports without a license into Pakistan across a customs frontier defined by the Federal Government any poison the importation of which is for the time being restricted under Section 3, or

(c) breaks any condition of a license granted to him under Section 2A, shall be punishable—
(i) on a first conviction, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to one hundred thousand rupees, or with both, and

(ii) on a second and subsequent conviction, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to two hundred thousand rupees, or with both.”
(2) Any poison in respect of which an offence has been committed under this section, together with the vessels, packages, or coverings in which the same is found, shall be liable to confiscation, and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 the offences under this Section shall be cognizable, non-bailable and compoundable.”

8. Insertion of Clause 6A, Act XII of 1919. In the said Act, after Section 6, the following new Section shall be inserted, namely:-

6A. Cancellation and suspension of licenses. - Where any person is found to have contravened any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules in respect of any poison and the contravention is of such a nature that the import, export, manufacture or sale of any poison by such person is, in the opinion of the licensing authority, likely to endanger public health, that authority may, after giving such person an opportunity of being heard, cancel the license to make, manufacture, distribute, sell and import poison issued to that person or suspend such license for a specified period.”
BUT NOTE: The Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act allows for a possibility of a fine-only sentence for a person convicted of an acid attack offense. We do not recommend such a provision in acid attack legislation. Penalties must be proportional to the severity of the crime, and in light of this principle, a fine alone does not constitute an appropriate penalty for an acid attack.
Stove Burning
The practice of stove burning takes different forms. Sometimes a woman is burned alive through deliberate tampering with a gasoline stove by her in-laws, causing an explosion. Other manifestations of stove burning include incidents where a husband or his family members douse his wife with kerosene oil and set her on fire. Stove burning may be motivated by anger over a wife’s failure to fulfill dowry demands or to give birth to a male child, but it is also frequently the culmination of a larger pattern of domestic violence. Stove burning incidents are usually characterized as accidents or suicides by the perpetrators and ignored by the police. Stove burning is prevalent in Pakistan and India. See: Good Practices on Harmful Practices Expert Group Report, pp. 21-22; See also: Dowry-Related Violence.
 
Legislation addressing stove burning should include the following elements:   
  • Legislation should define stove burning as a specific offense of premeditated killing or infliction of bodily harm on a woman through the use of fire, kerosene oil or other stove related matter;
  • Legislation should impose criminal penalties on anyone who commits the offense of stove burning, specifically including family members among those who may be penalized;
  • Legislation should penalize those who aid and abet this harmful practice, and should include family members among those who may be penalized;
  • Legislation should impose a duty upon medical providers to report to law enforcement authorities any case of serious bodily harm or death of a woman caused by fire, kerosene oil, or other stove-related matter;
  • Legislation should mandate that police officers investigate any such case reported by a medical provider;
  • Legislation should provide for penalties of prison time, fines and education;
  • Legislation should provide that sentencing guidelines reflect the gravity of the offense;
  • Legislation should provide for enhanced penalties if a victim dies as a result of stove burning. The perpetrator should be prosecuted under the murder statutes of the penal code. The specific law on stove burning should provide a term of imprisonment and fine which is no less severe than what is provided under the murder statutes of the general penal code with the exception of capital punishment;
  • Legislation should establish and fund public awareness campaigns and training for all sectors about this harmful practice and its consequences;
  • Legislation and other practices that perpetuate this harmful practice, such as honour crimes, should be amended or abolished;
  • Legislation should allow survivors of stove burning and the parents, siblings, or children of deceased victims to pursue civil remedies against the perpetrators; and
  • Legislation should provide legal, medical, and other types of rehabilitation services for survivors of stove burning.
 
Promising Practice:  Pakistan Criminal Procedure Code, 1898, Section 174-A
The government of Pakistan introduced a new section into its Criminal Procedure Code in 2001, providing that medical or law enforcement personnel who receive a case or report of grievous burns caused by fire, kerosene oil, chemical or other means must notify the nearest magistrate. The medical officer is also required to record the statement of the injured person. This statement is admissible in court under a “dying declaration” exception to the hearsay rules. See: Facets of Violence against Women, p. 17; Pakistan: Insufficient Protection of Women, Amnesty International.
  
Breast Ironing
“Breast ironing” refers to the painful practice of massaging or pounding young girls’ breasts with heated objects to suppress or reverse the growth of breasts. The objects used include plantains, wooden pestles and grinding stones heated over coals. The practice has been documented primarily in Cameroon, and is performed by mothers wishing to protect their young daughters from rape, unwanted sexual advances and early sex and pregnancies, all of which they fear would result from the appearance that a girl has reached the age of puberty. See: Kouyaté Expert Paper, p. 3; Cameroon Girls Battle “Breast Ironing,” BBC News, 2006.
 
In its concluding comments for the country of Cameroon, the CEDAW Committee expressed its concern for the continued practice of breast ironing. The Committee called on the State to increase its efforts to eliminate breast ironing and other harmful practices.  
Conclusions and recommendations of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Cameroon, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/CMR/CO/3 (2009)

29. The Committee urges the State party to enact national legislation to prohibit female genital mutilation, as well as any other harmful practice, such as breast ironing, in all instances, to strengthen its awareness-raising and educational efforts, targeted at both women and men, with the support of civil society, and to eliminate the practices of female genital mutilation and breast ironing and their underlying cultural justifications. It also encourages the State party to devise programmes for alternate sources of income for those who perform female genital mutilation as a means of livelihood
Legislation addressing breast ironing should include the following elements: 
  • Legislation should clearly and specifically condemn the practice of breast ironing;
  • Legislation should establish and fund education and public awareness programs regarding the consequences of breast ironing;
  • Legislation should promote alternative means of preventing early pregnancies through school sex education courses and community outreach education;
  • Legislation should impose a duty upon medical providers and teachers to report any case of breast ironing to social service providers and child protection agencies;
  • Legislation should authorize courts to issue protection orders upon application by a third party individual or organization on behalf of the child. This protection order should include an ex parte protection order for girls at risk of breast ironing or in the process of breast ironing; 
  • Legislation should also provide for the protection of younger sisters of known victims, as these sisters are often at risk of being subjected to breast ironing. Drafters should require that the state child protection agency initiate an investigation to determine whether younger siblings of a known victim are at risk of becoming victims, and apply for a protection order if necessary;
  • Violation of protection orders should be criminalized;
  • Legislation should provide services for victims such as legal, medical, and other types of rehabilitation services; and
  • Legislation and other practices that perpetuate this harmful practice, such as sexual assault and harassment, should be amended or abolished.

 

 

 

Sources:

Stormorken, Lalaine Sadiwa, Vincent, Katrine, Vervik, Ann-Kristin, & Santisteban, Ruth. No More Excuses! Ending all Harmful Traditional Practices against Girls and Young Women, Plan Norway and Plan Finland, 2007.
 
Other sources cited within text.