International Legal Framework/ The United Nations
UN Treaties and Documents

Universal Declaration on Human Rights, G.A. res. 217A (III) (1948).

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), entered into force 23 March 1976.

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200(A) (XXI), entered into force 23 March 1976.

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, G.A. res. 44/128, entered into force 11 July 1991.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), entered into force 3 January 1976.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, G.A. res. 34/180, entered into force 3 September 1981.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, G.A. res. A/54/4, entered into force 22 December 2000.

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation 19, Violence against women, (Eleventh session, 1992), U.N. Doc. HRI\GEN\1\Rev.1 at 84 (1994).

Commission of Human Rights Resolution 2003/45, Elimination of Violence Against Women, adopted 23 April 2003.

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, G.A. res. 48/104, U.N. Doc. A/48/49 (1993).

UN Conference Documents

Nairobi World Conference to Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade of Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (1985)

Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (1993).

Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo Program of Action (1994).

Copenhagen World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development (1995).

Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995).

United Nations Millennium Declaration, U.N. General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/2 (2000).

Durban World Conference Against Racism, Declaration and Programme of Action (2001).

Special Rapporteur

2003 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Developments in the area of violence against women (1994-2002) (E/CN.4/2003/75 and Corr.1) (6 January 2003). (Available in PDF and Word, 24 pages).

The right of every one to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Report of the Special Rapporteur, Paul Hunt (E/CN.4/2003/58) (13 February 2003). (Available in PDF and Word, 32 pages).

Addendum 1 to the Special Rapporteur's 2003 Report, International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003 (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1) (27 February 2003). (Available in PDF and Word, 434 pages).

2002 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Cultural Practices in the Family that Are Violence Towards Women (E/CN.4/2002/83) (31 January 2002). (Available in PDF and Word, 39 pages).

The addendum to the 2002 Report (E/CN.4/2002/83/Add.1) (28 January 2002), contains country information on Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, and Uzbekistan. (Available in PDF and Word, 41 pages).

In her statement to the Commission on Human Rights on 10 April 2002, as she presented her 2002 report on cultural practices in the family that violate the rights of women, the Special Rapporteur discusses the causes and consequences of violence against women and notes the connection between the use of violence as a means of conflict resolution and high levels of domestic violence.

2001 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Violence Against Women Perpetrated and/or Condoned by the State During Times of Armed Conflict(E/CN.4/2001/73) (23 January 2001). (Available in PDF and Word, 45 pages).

Review of Reports, Studies and Other Documentation for the Preparatory Committee and the World Conference, Note by the Secretary-General, transmission of contribution by Special Rapporteur Radhika Coomaraswamy to the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance on the subject of race, gender and violence against women (A/CONF.189/PC.3/5) (27 July 2001). (Available in PDF and Word, 64 pages).

In April 2001, the Commission on Human Rights issued Resolution 2001/49 in which it, among other things, welcomed the Special Rapporteur's 2001 report, condemned domestic violence and battering as a human rights violation, and urged states to consider signing and ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Women's Convention.

2000 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Trafficking in Women, Women's Migration and Violence Against Women (E/CN.4/2000/68) (29 February 2000). (Available in PDF and Word, 38 pages).

Addendum to 2000 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Economic and Social Policy and Its Impact on Violence Against Women (E/CN.4/2000/68/Add.5) (24 February 2000). (Available in PDF and Word, 20 pages).

Addendum to the 1999 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Policies and Practices that Impact Women's Reproductive Rights and Contribute to, Cause or Constitute Violence Against Women (E/CN.4/1999/68/Add.4) (21 January 1999).

1998 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Alternative Approaches and Ways and Means Within the United Nations System for Improving the Effective Enjoyment of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (E/CN.4/1998/54) (26 January 1998).

1997 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Alternative Approaches and Ways and Means Within the United Nations System for Improving the Effective Enjoyment of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedomes (E/CN.4/1997/47) (12 February 1997).

1996 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Further Promotion and Encouragement of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (E/CN.4/1996/53) (6 February 1996).