Kosovo, population 2 million, is located in Eastern Europe.

Women from all statuses and ethnic origins are still feeling the repercussions of the violence that occurred in Kosovo. UNMIK has taken steps to improve the status of women and stop violence. In October 1999, an Office of Gender Affairs was established within the framework of UNMIK, according to UNIFEM. There is also a UNMIK Police Trafficking and Prostitution Investigations Unit to combat prostitution and trafficking. Trafficking victims are not prosecuted, but are given assistance, medical treatment and counseling.

UNMIK Regulation 2001/9 on a Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self-Government in Kosovo guarantees everyone the equal enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination (Article 3.1). In addition, Article 3.2 states that the Provisional Institutions of Self Government are to adhere to international human rights standards set forth by several instruments, including CEDAW. As of 6 July 2003, UNMIK Regulation No. 2003/25 provides for a new Provisional Criminal Code, which is to enter into force on 6 April 2004. The Provisional Criminal Code punishes the violation of equal status of individuals (Article 158). Article 158(1) punishes anyone who "unlawfully denies or limits the freedoms or rights of a resident of Kosovo" based on protected grounds, including sex, by imprisonment of six months to five years. If a public official commits the offense through his or her official capacity, the prison sentence ranges from six months to seven years, depending on the type of violation. An Ombudsperson has been created to hear complaints of human rights violations by the interim administration or other institution and is required to give special attention to allegations of discrimination (Section 3.1). 

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