last updated December 2014

In partnership with UN Women, The Advocates for Human Rights created the following sections for UN Women’s Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. This section, along with sections addressing other forms of violence against women and girls, may be found under Legislation at


Sexual Harassment

Advocates for Human Rights, StopVAW.

Abbas, Nosheen, Sexual Harassment in Pakistan, The Huffington Post, Dec. 16, 2009.

Abdelhadi, Magdi, Egypt’s sexual harassment ‘cancer’, BBC News Online, 18 Jul 2008.

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, 2003.

Algeria, Law No. 04-15 amending the Penal Code to create the offence of sexual harassment; article 341 bis Criminal Code, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Alliance Against Sexual Harassment (Pakistan), The Code of Conduct for Gender Justice at the Workplace.

American Association of University Women, Harassment-Free Hallways: How to Stop Sexual Harassment in School, 2004.

Amnesty International, Safe Schools: Every Girl’s Right (2008).

Australia, Lee v. Smith & Ors, FMCA 59 (2007).

Australia, New South Wales, Anti-Discrimination Act of 1977.

Australia, Sex Discrimination Act, (as amended 2009).

Australian Broadcasting Company, Huge payout for sexual harassment victim, June 23, 2009.

Australian Human Rights Commission, Youth Challenge – Unit 4: Tackling Sexual Harassment in Your School (2004).

Australian Human Rights Commission, Federal Discrimination Law Ch. 7 Damages and Remedies.

Bangladesh, Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association v. Gov. of Bangladesh and Others, (2009).

Bangladesh, Advocate Salahuddin Dolon v. Bangladesh (2010).

Belize, Protection Against Sexual Harassment Act, 1996.

Benin, Loi sur le Harcelement Sexuel.

Benin bans harassment, WILPF, July 26, 2006.

Borufika, Sarah, Study finds high levels of sex harassment at Czech Universities, Jan. 15, 2010.

Bulgaria, Bill on Prevention Against Discrimination, 2003.

Burri, Susanne & Aileen McColgan, European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Gender Equality, Sex Discrimination in the Access to and Supply of Goods and Services and the Transposition of Directive 2004/113/EC, 2009.

Canada, MacGarvie v. Friedmann, 2009 BCHRT 47 (Feb. 2, 2009).

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Anti-Harassment Policies for the Workplace: An Employer’s Guide, 2006.

CARICOM, Model Law on Sexual Harassment, 1996.

Chile, Corte Suprema, 09/04/2003, 27092002 Dginnia Giovanna Riveri Cerón con Fundación Comunicaciones Cultura Capacitación Agro.

Chile, Corte de Apelaciones de Santiago, 27/05/2008, 44752007 Paola González Miranda con Rodríguez Peñaloza y Compañía..

Cobey, Christopher E. & David N. Goldman, Sexual Harassment Prevention Training Now Mandatory for California Employers (Findlaw US 2005).

Colombia, Law 1010 of 2006 (Spanish).

Costa Rica, Act No. 7476 on Sexual Harassment in the Workplace and in Education (1995) (Spanish).

Costa Rica, Combined initial, second and third periodic reports of States parties, CEDAW/C/CRI/1-3,

Costa Rica, Sentencia [S.] No. 00038, de las 23 Enero 2008, Sala Segundo de la Corte Suprema de Justicia [Supreme Court, Chamber II], Cons. IV.

Costa Rica, Radio Campaigns to Prevent Sexual Harassment, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Coordination Committee for the prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (CCSEA), Understanding Humanitarian Aid Worker Responsibilities: Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Prevention, 2003.

Council of Europe, Legislation in the member States of the Council of Europe in the field of violence against women, EG(2001) 3 rev. Volume II, 2002. (2001) 3 Volume II rev Nov 2002.doc

Council of the European Union, Directive 2004/113/EC, Implementing the Principle of Equal Treatment between Men and Women in the Access to and Supply of Goods and Services, 2004.

Dann, Geraldine et al., Are you liable? Sexual Harassment in the Workplace (Findlaw Australia 2003).

Economic Community of West African States, Office of the Commissioner on Human Development and Gender.

Education International, Combating Sexual Harassment in Schools, 2005.

Egypt moves closer to passing sexual harassment law, Reuters, Feb. 17, 2010.

Ekberg, Gunilla, The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services, 10 Viol. Against Women 1187, 1198 (2004).

El Salvador, Plan Nacional de Education 2021, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Estonia, Gender Equity Act (2004).

Estrada, Daniela, Sexual Harassment Law Finally Approved After 13 Years,, 14 Jan 2005.

European Association Against Workplace Violence Against Women (AVFT), Campagne contre les violences sexuelles et sexistes commises par les élus, 5 Jul 2009.

European Commission, Transposition of Gender Equality directives into national law.

European Parliament, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000.

European Parliament, Resolution on Women and Sport, 2005.

European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Directive 2006/54/EC, On Implementation of the Principles of Equal Opportunities and Equal Treatment of Men and Women in Matters of Employment and Occupation, 2006.

Fair Housing Advocates Association, Sexual Harassment Laws, 2009.

Feminist Daily News, Egypt finally convicts a sexual harasser, 28 Oct. 2008.

Finland, Act on Equality between Women and Men, 1987.,LEGISLATION,,FIN,3ae6b51c0,0.html

France, Code Pénal.

Guyana, Prevention of Discrimination Act, 1997.

Hausloner, Abigail, In Egypt, Invoking Islam to Combat Sexual Harassment, Time, July 10, 2009.

Human Rights Watch, Scared at School, 2001.

Human Rights Watch, Trapped by Inequality: Bhutanese Refugee Women in Nepal, 2003

Iceland, Act on the Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, 2000.

Increasing focus on workplace ‘mobbing’, EIRO Online, 2004.

India, Vishaka and others v. State of Rajasthan and others, Sup. Ct. India (1997).

Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Task Force on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises, Final Report of the IASC Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises, para. 14, 2004.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Task Force on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises, Report of the IASC Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises in response to allegations of abuse in West Africa, 2002.

Inter-American Commission of Women, Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (Belem do Para), 1994.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Export Processing Zones – Symbols of Exploitation and a Development Dead-End (2003).

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Spotlight interview with Josephine de Jesus, Union Voices, 2005.

International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA), Building Safer Organizations Handbook, 2006.

International Labour Organisation, Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (No. 111), 1958.

International Labour Organisation, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169), 1989.

International Olympic Committee, Consensus Statement: Sexual Harassment and Sport, 2007.

Ireland, Equal Status Act of 2000, 2000.

Ireland, Equality in Employment Act of 1998, 1998.

Ireland, Module in Social Education and Equality Issues, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Irish Presidency of the European Union, Sexual Harassment in the Workplace in EU Member States, 2004.

Israel, Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law, 1998.

Ispahani, Farahnaz, Towards Women’s Empowerment, newPakistan, March 13, 2010.

Japan, Penal Code.

Japan Tries Women-Only Train Cars to Stop Groping, ABC News Online, June 10, 2005.

Kenya, Sexual Offences Act, 2006.

Kenya: Sex for jobs in export processing zones, IRIN News, Nov. 24, 2008.

Leach, Fiona & Shashikala Sitaram, Sexual harassment and abuse of adolescent school girls in South India, 2 Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 257 (2007).

Lewis, H. & E. Norman, “Civil Rights Law & Practice”, 290-92, 2001.

Leymann, Dr. Heinz, The Mobbing Encyclopedia.

Lithuania, Criminal Code (English-Chapter XXI) (English-full) (Original), 2000.

Malta, Equality for Men and Women Act, as amended, 2003.

Mauritius, Equal Opportunities Bill (2008).

McCann, Deirdre, Sexual Harassment at Work: National and international responses, (International Labour Organisation 2005).

Naik, Asmita, The West Africa sex scandal, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, July 2003.

National Center for Lesbian Rights, Federal Cases Recognizing that Discrimination on the Basis of Gender Non-conformity and/or Transgender Status is a Form on Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, 2006.

National Center for Lesbian Rights, Guidance for Drafting State Safe Schools Legislation, 2002.

National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Child Protection in Sport Unit.

NCAA Gender Equity Forum, Nancy Hogshead-Makar, Sexual Harassment (video), 2008.

Pablo, Carlito, B.C. Human Rights Tribunal Favours Tenant in Sexual Harassment Case, (Feb. 5, 2009).

Pakistan, Protection Against Harassment at the Workplace Act, 2008 (2009).

Pakistan, Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2009.

Pan-African University, Enterprise Development Services, Sample Sexual Harassment Policies (2010).

Panama, Act No. 9 of 20 June 1994, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Panama, Act. No. 44 of 1995, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Panama, Law No. 38 of 2001, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Philippines, Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995, Republic Act No. 7877, 1995.

Portugal, Penal Code.

PR China, Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women,1992.

Prof ordered to pay 9 mil. yen for sexual harassment, Asian Economic News, July, 10, 2000 

Republic of Korea, Korean Institute for Gender Equality Promotion and Education Trainings, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Rosselson, Ruth, What are export processing zones?, 106 Ethical Consumer 2007.

Russia, Criminal Code, Original, 1996.

Scotland, Sexual Harassment, Shelter.

Shank, Megan, No Longer Silent: Sexual harassment finally gets a hearing for China’s 330 million women workers, Ms. Magazine, Winter 2009.

Slovakia, Inclusion of Violence Against Women in Curricula on Ethical Education and Civics, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

South Africa, Commission on Gender Equality Act 1996.

South Africa, Education Laws Amendment Act, 2000.

South Africa, Bongiwe Ntsabo v. Real Security CC (Labour Court of South Africa (2003)).

South Africa, Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2000.

South Africa, Code of Good Practice on the Handling of Sexual Harassment issued under the Labour Relations Act, UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women.

Southern African Development Community, Protocol on Gender and Development

Spain, Penal Code.

Sphere Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, 2004.

Sweden, Discrimination Act, 2008.

United Kingdom, Insitu Cleaning Co. Ltd. v. Heads (Employment Appeal Tribunal 1992).

United Kingdom, Equality Law, Bills before Parliament, Session 2008-09.

United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, No. 1042 (N.I. 15), 1976.

United Kingdom, Sexual Offences Act, 2003.

UN Commission on Human Rights, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons. Guidelines for Prevention and Response, May 2003.

UN Commission on Human Rights, Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, E/CN.4/2003/75, para. 48, 6 Jan. 2003.$FILE/G0310100.pdf

UN Commission on Human Rights, Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women (Addendum), E/CN.4/2005/72, 13 Apr. 2005.,REFERENCE,UNCHR,,,43f305e40,0.html

UN Commission on Human Rights/Save the Children-UK, Sexual Violence and Exploitation: The Experience of Refugee Children in Liberia Guinea and Sierra Leone, 2002.

UNIFEM, Chapter 2: Sexual Assault And Coercion, Saying No to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace, in Picturing a Life Free of Violence: Media and Communications Strategies to End Violence Against Women, p. 28 (2001).

UN Economic and Social Council, Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, para. 48, 2003.

UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), Sexual Exploitation and Abuse End of Assignment Report, 2005.

UNESCO, Code of Sports Ethics,

UNiTE Fact Sheet - How prevalent is violence against women? (Feb. 2008).

United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 Dec. 1979.

United Nations, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, A/Res/48/104, 20 Dec. 1993.

United Nations, Division for Advancement of Women, Beijing Platform for Action, 1995.

United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women, Handbook for legislation on violence against women, 2009.

United Nations, General Assembly, Report of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Assistance and Support to Victims of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, A/62/595, 19 Dec. 2007.

United Nations, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, ST/SGB/2003/13, 9 Oct. 2003.

United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, 2000.

United Nations, Statement of Commitment on Eliminating Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN and Non-UN Personnel, 2006.

United Nations, UN Codes of Conduct, Ten Rules: Code of Personal Conduct for Blue Helmets, 1998.

U.S. Dept. of Education, Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crime: A guide for schools, 1999.

U.S. Dept. of Education, Sexual Harassment: It’s Not Academic, 2008.

U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Questions and Answers on Sexual Harassment under the Fair Housing Act (Policy Guidance), 2008.

U.S. Dept. of Labor, Colombia Labor Rights Report, 2008.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment by Supervisors, Notice No. 915.002, 18 June 1999.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Filing a Charge of Discrimination.


U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex, 29 C.F.R. s. 1604.11(d) and (e).

U.S. General Accounting Office, Humanitarian Assistance: Protecting Refugee Women and Girls Remains a Significant Challenge, GAO-03-633, May 2003.

USA, Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 118 S. Ct. 2257 (1998).

USA, Burrell v. Star Nursery, Inc.,170 F.3d 951 (9th Cir. 1999).

USA, California Education Code, Section 231.5, Sex Equity in Education Act, 1982.

USA, Connecticut, Regulations for Sexual Harassment Posting & Training Requirements (1993).

USA, Davis v. Monroe County Board of Educ., 526 U.S. 629 (1999).

USA, Fair Housing Act, 42 USC §§ 3601-3691, 1968.

USA, Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 118 S. Ct. 2275 (1998).

USA, Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School Dist, 524 U.S. 274 (1989).

USA, Harris v. Forklift Systems, 510 U.S. 17 (1993).

USA, Jennings v. University of North Carolina, No. 04-2447 (4th Cir. 2007).

USA, Minnesota, Stat. sec. 609.784, 2009.

USA, New York Governor’s Office, Sexual Harassment Prevention (online training program).

USA, New York v. Merlino, 694 F. Supp. 1101 (S.D.N.Y. 1998).

USA, Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders, 542 U.S. 129 (2004).

USA, Williams v. Saxbe, 413 F. Supp 654 (Ct. App. D.C. 1976).

USAID Women’s Legal Rights Initiative, Annual Report on Good Practices, Lessons Learned, and Success Stories (2006).

Windhoek Call for Action, Second World Conference on Women and Sport,1998. Windhoek Call for Action.doc

Womankind (UK), Campaigns to Stop Sexual Bullying in Schools.

Women can’t be forced to wear veil, Women Magazine of Bangladesh, April 15, 2010.

Women’ (USA), Harassment Restraining Order.

Women’s Legal Centre (South Africa), Ntsabo v. Real Security.

Women’s Legal Centre (South Africa), Sexual Harassment and the Amended Code of Good Practice on the Handling of Sexual Harassment in South Africa (2006).

Women’s Sports Foundation, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Relationships Between Coaches, Other Athletic Personnel and Athletes: The Foundation Position, 2008.

Women Sport International, Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, 2009.

Yardley, Jim, Indian Women Find New Peace in Rail Commute, New York Times, 15 Sept. 2009.

Zicherman, Nona, “It is difficult to escape what is linked to survival”: Sexual exploitation and food distribution in Burundi, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, November 2006.